The following questions are based on four passages in English to test the comprehension of English language. Read each passage and answer the questions.
Apart from the case in which culture and direct utility can be combined, there is indirect utility of various kinds in the possession of knowledge which does not contribute to technical efficiency.
I think some of the worst features of the modern world could be improved by a greater ecouragement of such knowledge and less ruthless pursuit of more professional competence. When conscious activity is wholly conscious activity is wholly concentrated on one definite purpose the ultimate result, for most people is lack of balance accompanied by some form of nervous disorder. The men who directed German policy during the war made mistakes, for example, as regards the submarine campaign which brought America on the side of the Allies, which any person coming fresh to the subject could have seen to be unwise, but which they could not judge sanely owing to mental concentration and lack of holidays. The same sort of thing may be seen wherever bodies of men attempt tasks which put a prolonged strain upon spontaneous. Men as well as children have need of play, that is to say, of periods of activity having no purpose, present enjoyment. But if play is to serve its purpose, it must be possible to find pleasure and interest in matters not connected with work. Better economic organization allowing mankind to benefit by the productivity of machines, should lead to a very great increase of leisure, and much leisure is apt be tedious except to those who have considerable intelligent activities and interests. If a leisured population is to be happy it must be an educated population, and must be educated with a view to mental enjoyment as well as to the direct usefulness of technical knowledge.
What is the significance of the phrase “ruthless pursuit” when used, with regard to professional competence.