Under the concerted assault of the modern debunking ‘sciences’, psychology and sociology, nothing indeed has seemed to be more safely buried than the concept of freedom. Even revolutionists would rather degrade freedom to the rank of a lower-middle class prejudice than admit that the aim of revolution was and always has been, freedom. Yet if it was amazing to see how the very word freedom could disappear from the revolutionary vocabulary, it has perhaps been no less astounding to watch how in recent years the idea of freedom has intruded itself into the centre of the gravest of all present political debates, the discussion of war and of a justifiable use of violence. Historically, wars are among the oldest phenomena of the recorded past while revolutions, properly speaking, did not exist prior to the modern age; they are among the most recent of all major political data. In contrast to revolution, the aim of war was only in rare cases bound up with the notion of freedom; and while it is true that warlike uprisings against a foreign invader have frequently been felt to be sacred, they have never been recognised, either in theory or in practice, as the only just wars.
Which of the following revolutions does not prove the assertion “aim of the revolutions was and always has been freedom.”