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Introduction

ICs are categorised as:
  1. Linear (analog) ICs
  2. Digital ICs


Classification of ICs

 

The advantages of ICs are as follows:

  1. Its size is small. Due to miniaturisation, the density of components is increased. It is possible to incorporate about 20,000 components per square inch in it.
  2. Improved performance as complex circuits are fabricated for better performance.
  3. Low cost due to batch processing.
  4. Reliability is high.
  5. Less power consumption.
  6. Higher operating speed due to absence of parasitic capacitance effect.
  7. Matched devices.
  8. Less weight.
  9. Easy replacement.

Limitations of ICs

Table: Types of Integrated circuits
 
Type of ICs SSI MSI LSI VLSI ULSI
No. of transistors Up to 100 transistors per chip 100 to 1000 transistors per chip 1000 to 20,000 transistors per chip 20,000 to 1000,000 transistors per chip 106 to 107 transistors per chip
No. of gates Up to 30 gates per chip 30 to 300 gates per chip 300 to 3000 gates per chip More than 3000 gates per chip  
Applications Logic gates, flip-flops Adders, Multiplexers, Counters RAM, ROM, 8-bit microprocessor 16-bit and 32-bit microprocessor Special processors, Smart sensors
Year of Development 1960–65 1965–70 1970–80 1980–90 1990–2000
 




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