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Virtual Ground

In an ideal operational amplifier, the input impedance is infinite (Zi = ) and no current flows through inverting and non-inverting terminals (Ii = 0). As no current flows through the input terminals, the current I flows through resistance R1 and the same current also passes through resistance Rf as shown in Fig. Since gain of ideal operational A= , 58885.png, and Vi = 0. This states that the input terminals of the operational amplifier are effectively shorted and virtual ground exists in the circuit.

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