Coupon Accepted Successfully!



Cosmetology is the science of beautifying the skin and its appendages, which play an important role in socio-sexual communication.

Therapeutic cosmetology involves passage of active ingredients across the skin thereby altering the physiology of the area.


The common cosmetic problems which come to a consultant are acne (pimples), diffuse hair loss, excessive growth of hair, scars, premature ageing of skin, excessive dryness of skin, premature greying of hair, pregnancy induced pigmentation on face etc.


Scientific knowledge of cosmetology enables dermatologist to give rational treatments and aesthetically acceptable results thereby preventing patients indulgence in unscientific methods.


Matter: It is anything that occupies space. It exists in 3 forms: Solid, Liquid & Gas.


Atom: It is the smallest particle of an element. It can take place in a chemical reaction


pH:  pH is a measure of hydrogen ion concentration in dilute aqueous solutions. It is the measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution

pH level of is 7.0 at 25°C is defined as 'neutral'

pH less than 7 are acidic. Lower the pH greater degree of acidity.

pH greater than 7 are basic or alkaline. Higher  the pH greater the alkalinity.

pH of Normal skin is 4.5 to 6 (slightly acidic) due to secretion of sebum & sweat which acts as a protective film against bacterial infection.


Solution: It is a mixture made by dissolving solutes in the solvent.

A solution typically consists of the dissolved material called the solute and the dissolving agent called the solvent. A common example is sugar (the solute) dissolved in water (the solvent)


Dilute Solution: It is a solution with small amount of solute in proportion to the quantity of solvent.


Concentrated Solution: It is a solution which contains large quantity of solute in proportion to the quantity of solvent.


Saturated Solution: A saturated solution is a solution containing the maximum concentration of a solute at the given temperature. Additional solute will not dissolve in a saturated solution at that given temperature.


Suspension: It is a temporary mixture of insoluble powder in liquid

Eg. Sand in water, Calamine lotion, etc.

They are typically clear products with visible particles like gelatin beads or inorganic minerals (e.g. titanium dioxide) suspended throughout. They are used for sunscreens, hand washes, shampoos, etc.


Emulsions: It is a permanent mixture of 2 or more un-mixable liquids united & stabilised by an emulsifier.  They are used for products like hand moisturizers, make up, hair conditioners, sunscreens, etc. To create them you need three formula components including an oil phase, aqueous phase, and an emulsifier. The formulas are made by heating up the oil and water phases separately, mixing them together (along with the emulsifier) when they are hot, and cooling them down with thorough mixing.

  1. Oil in Water: (o/w) Emulsion made of oil droplets dispersed in watery base. Due to higher water content it is often an easy flowing liquid or milk.
  2. Water in Oil: (w/o) Emulsion is made up of water droplets scattered within the oily base. Eg: Cold cream, cleansing creams, etc.

Humectants: It is a natural content present in products that has ability to attract and retain water to itself .These substances are called hygroscopic, which means that they are able to absorb ambient water.

eg: Glycerine present in lotions, hand creams humectant in food products is sorbitol. This humectant is a sugar alcohol derived from sugar.

A humectant like mineral oil, however, can actually build up under the skin and prevent the skin from absorbing essential vitamins and nutrients. Gives a velvety feel to the skin. Derived from cherries, plums, pears, apples and seaweed.

Soybean Oil: A vitamin-rich emollient that absorbs well into the skin. Has a nourishing, softening and moisturizing effect on skin. Propylene glycol is generally used as a humectant. 

Collagen: Collagens have great tensile strength, and provide these body structures with the ability to withstand forces that stretch them.

Acids: Acids have ph less than 7. They are sour to taste. Acid neutralizes bases producing salt and water.

e.g HCL


Alkalis: Bases have ph more than 7.They are bitter to taste. Bases turns red litmus to blue . Acid neutralizes bases producing salt and water.

e.g NaOH


Test Your Skills Now!
Take a Quiz now
Reviewer Name