Coupon Accepted Successfully!

 Growth Of Agriculture During Planning Period


In the following points we will learn how agriculture sector has developed in India over the years.

Increase In Production And Productivity:
The following table shows how agricultural production has progressed over the years.

Agriculture production




1. Foodgrains (m.t.)

2. Pulses (m.t.)

3. Sugarcane (m.t.)

4. Oilseeds (m.t.)

5. Cotton (m. bales)

6. Jute and Mesta (m. bales)

















More than thrice in 1951–51, 51 million tonnes which increased to 234 million tonnes in 2008–09 (but reduced to 218 million tonnes in 2009–10). Since 1966, the food grains production increased from 81 million tonnes in the Third Plan (i.e. before HYVP) to 234 million tonnes in 2009–10.

HYVP was restricted to five crops – wheat, rice, bajra, jawar and maize. But among these wheat made wide strides with production increased by more than five and half times from 11 million tonnes (annual average) in the third plan to 80.7 million tonnes in 2009–10.

Agriculture productivity has increased at a rate of around 2.06 per cent per annum during 1967–2003. There has been improvement in productivity of land in almost all commodities but it has been more in the case of wheat and potatoes and only marginal in rest of the products.

Diversified agriculture:
Indian agricultural has become diversified as will be clear from the following facts:
The share of non-crop sectors (fishery, forestry and animal husbandry) in total agricultural output is increasing.

Area under commercial crop like sugar, cotton, oilseeds, etc. is increasing.
Within food grains, area under superior cereals is increasing under the inferior cereals is declining.

 Modern Agriculture


Qualitative changes have taken place in agricultural sector especially in India since 1966 when Green Revolution was started.

The use of high-yielding varieties of seeds, chemical fertilizers, pesticides, threshing machine is rising.

Farmers are increasingly resorting to intensive cultivation, multiple cropping, scientific water management in some states.

There have been noticeable changes in the attributes of farmers. They are ready to accept new and scientific techniques of production.

Agricultural capacity has improved a lot.

A number of institutions have come up for marketing agricultural products for providing agricultural credit, for purchasing and distributing of agricultural inputs and storage etc.

 Improved Agrarian System

At the time of Independence, there were three types of land tenure systems prevailing in the country – the zamindari system, the ryotwari system and mahalwari system. Only the system of collecting rent or land revenue was different in these land tenure systems. Whatever the system of collecting land revenue, the tenant or the actual tiller of the land was exploited by the land owners. In order to stop the exploitation of the actual tillers of the soil and to pass on the ownership of land to them land reforms were introduced after Independence. Three measures were:


(i) Abolition of intermediaries

(ii) Tenancy reforms

(iii) Reorganization of agriculture

Legislations were passed in all states to abolish zamindari system. As a result, around 173 million acres of land was acquired from the intermediaries and two crore tenants were brought in indirect contact with the state. Before independence, the rent changed by the Zamindars from the tenants was very high. It ranged between 30 to 75 per cent. So, after independence, legislations were passed to fix rents between 25–50 per cent for different states. Ceilings were also imposed on agricultural holdings. That means limits were imposed on the amount of land which a family could hold. Accordingly, a family could hold 18 acres of wet land or 54 acres of unirrigated land. It has been estimated that 2.98 million hectares of land had been declared surplus of which 2.18 million hectares has been distributed to 5.58 million beneficiaries. In order to solve the problem of fragmentation of holdings, the land was reorganized. Accordingly it was decided to consolidate holdings by giving to the farmer one consolidated holding equal to the total for the land in different scattered plots under his possession. Cooperative farming was also started but it did not succeed much.

Other Developments

Farmers have been getting material inputs at subsidized rates.


They are getting credit at low rates of interest. Government is helping them in producing their products at predetermined rates and marketing them.  Minimum wage levels have been fixed for agricultural laborers. Special programmes such as Integrated Rural Development Proramme, Jawahar Rozgar Yojana etc. have been started in rural areas to provide employment to the rural people. The National Food Security Mission was lunched in 2007-08. The Rashtriya Krishi Vikash Yojna is implemented for integrated development of food crop.

Test Your Skills Now!
Take a Quiz now
Reviewer Name