Coupon Accepted Successfully!


Sex Ratio


It means the number of females per 1000 males.

Census year

Sec ratio














Highly unfavourable sex ratio. This show our society is male dominated.

People do pre-natal diagnosis to test sex of the fetus and terminate the unborn child if it is a female baby. State-wise sex ratio is favourable to males in all states except Kerala. In Kerala, the ratio of females to males was 1058/1000 boys in 2001. Haryana has the lowest sex ratio, i.e. 861 (2001) among all states.

Reasons For Unfavourable Sex Ratio

  1. Girls in India are not as adequately looked after as boys. As a result IMR among girls is high.
  2. The burden of bearing children at an early age, and the greater frequently of births at short intervals lead to the death of many women.
  3. Pervasive male-child preference which has been the cause of female foeticide.
  4. Because of the large illiteracy and social customs which keep many women behind the curtain.
  5. Large female-male ratio in rural areas. One of the possible reasons may be the fact that males leave the village to work in cities, leaving their womenfolk behind.

Life Expectancy At Birth

The number of years for which people of a country, expect to live at the time of birth is the average life-expectancy of that country. It depends mainly on the death rate and age at the time of birth.

  • If the death rate is high and/ or death occurs at an early age, the life expectancy will be low.
  • If the death rate is low and/ or death occurs at a late stage, the life expectancy will be high.

Important Fact

At the beginning of the last century, life expectancy was very low. It was only 23 years.

Till 1921–30 – below 30 years.

Till 1941–50 – below 40 years.

In 1981 – 55 years

1991 – 60 years

2001 – 63.8 years

Among states, Kerala had the highest life expectancy at birth at 74 and Madhya pardesh had the lowest at 58 in 2006. Life expectancy at birth in India fares badly when compared with developed economies and developing economies such as Sri Lanka and Thailand.

Test Your Skills Now!
Take a Quiz now
Reviewer Name