The huge labour force of the country, (63% of population are in the working age group) if properly utilized, can yield high production and growth for the economy. This has come to be known as the demographic dividend. There was a decline in the dependency ratio (ratio of dependents to working-age population) from 0.8 in 1991 to 0.73 in 2001 and further to 0.59 in 2011. This gives India a better cost advantage and progressively lower dependency ratio will result in improving our cost competitiveness.
Various causes of poverty can be classified under economic, political and social heads.