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Question-1

What is the importance of agriculture in Indian economy?

Solution:
a. India is an agricultural country.

b. Nearly two-thirds of its population depends directly on agriculture for its livelihood.

c. Agriculture is the main stay of India’s economy.

d. It accounts for 26% of the gross domestic product.

e. It ensures food security for the country and produces several raw materials for industries.

f. Agricultural development is therefore, a precondition of our national prosperity.

Question-2

Name three features of Indian agriculture.

Solution:
a. Farmers own small piece of land and grow crops primarily for their own consumption.

b. Animals play a significant role in the various kinds of agricultural activities.

c. Farmers depend mainly upon monsoon rains.


Question-3

What is plantation agriculture?

Solution:
a. Plantation farming is bush or tree farming

b. The British introduced it in the nineteenth century.


c. It is a single crop farming of rubber, tea, coffee, cocoa, spices, coconut and fruits like apples, grapes, oranges etc.


d. It is capital intensive and demands good managerial ability, technical know-how, sophisticated machinery, fertilizers, irrigation and transport facilities.


e. Some of the plantations like tea, coffee, rubber have a processing factory within the farm itself or close to it.


f. This type of agriculture has developed in hilly areas of north- eastern India, sub-Himalayan, West Bengal and in Nilgiri, Anamalai and Cardamom hills in peninsular India.


Question-4

Name three important wheat-producing states of India.

Solution:
The main wheat producing states are U.P, Haryana, Bihar,and Punjab.

Question-5

Name three sugarcane-producing states of the country.

Solution:
The major sugarcane producing states are Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.

Question-6

Mention three spice-producing states of India.

Solution:
Spice producing areas in India are Kerala, Karnataka, and Tamil Nadu.

Question-7

Name three tobacco-producing states of India.

Solution:
Tobacco producing states are Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka.

Question-8

Distinguish between: Rabi and Kharif Crops.

Solution:
Rabi and Kharif crops

Kharif

Rabi

1. Cultivation begins with the on set of monsoons in May.

1 Cultivation begins with the withdrawal of monsoons in October.

2. Sowing of seeds is done in June or early July.

2. Sowing of seeds is done in October- November.

3. Crops are harvested in September- October.

3. Crops are harvested in April-May.

4. Crops depend on the monsoons.

4. Crops depend on the sub-soil moisture.

5. Types: Rice, millets, maize, groundnuts, jute, cotton and various pulses.

5. Types : Wheat, gram and oil-seeds like mustard and rape- seeds

 

Question-9

Distinguish Between Dry and Wet Agriculture.

Solution:
Dry and Wet Agriculture

Dry Agriculture

Wet Agriculture

Dry farming is a type of farming in which moisture is maintained by raising special type of crops.

 Wet farming is a type of farming, which depends mainly upon rains.

Crops such as gram and peas are grown.

In this type of farming rice, jute and maize are grown.

There is vast dependence on irrigation.

There is no irrigation required.

This is practiced in dry areas of the country

This type of farming is done in Northeastern parts of India.

 

Question-10

Distinguish between Tea and Coffee Cultivation.

Solution:
Tea and Coffee Cultivation

Tea

Coffee

It requires warm and moist-free climate

It requires hot and humid climate

The British introduced it.

The Arabic variety was brought from Yemen.

It requires 200C to 300C temperatures.

It requires 150C to 280C temperature.

It requires 300 cm rainfall.

It requires 200 cm rainfall.

It is grown in Assam, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu and Kerala.

It is grown on hills around Nilgiris, Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu.

 

Question-11

Describe various technological and institutional reforms, which led to Green and White revolutions in India.

Solution:
The various technological and institutional reforms consist of various measures taken by the Central and State governments from time to time. Flooding of fields with water is now being replaced by drip irrigation and the use of sprinklers. Chemical fertilizers are being used on a large scale, to increase the farm yields. Bio- fertilisers are now supplementing them. High yielding and early maturing quality seeds have been developed. Most of these technology inputs gave birth to Green Revolution in sixties and seventies of twentieth century. White Revolution followed the Green Revolution.

Question-12

What is the importance of animal husbandry in India?

Solution:
Farm animals form an important ecosystem in an agriculture country like India. Farm animals are the partners of the farmers. Ox, he- buffalo and camel are used as drought animals in performing activities like ploughing, sowing, thrashing and transporting farm products. Cows and she- buffalo provide them milk.

Question-13

Describe the distribution of rice cultivation in India.

Solution:
Rice is one of the major food crop in India. India is second largest producer of rice in the world after China. It is grown on about one fourth of the total cropped area and provides food to about half of the country’s population. Rice is a tropical plant. It requires high temperature of about 240C with minor variation during sowing and harvesting. It requires 100cm of rain. It is grown in Punjab, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, western and eastern coastal strips, Brahmaputra valley and Jammu and Kashmir.

Question-14

How is it possible to grow rice in areas of less rain, like Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan?

Solution:
Development of canal irrigation and tube wells have made possible to grow rice in Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan.

Question-15

Mention some industries based on agricultural raw materials.

Solution:
Tea, coffee, sugar and cotton industries.

Question-16

What is the the PDS programme of the government of India?

Solution:
It is a programme that, provides food grains and other essential commodities at subsidized process in rural and urban areas.

Question-17

Mention one reason for big zamindars to offer Bhvadonar Goarrdan.

Solution:
Many offered due to the fear of land ceiling act.

Question-18

Name the movements started by Vinoba Bhave, known as Blood-less revolution?

Solution:
The Bhoodan - Gramdan movements started by Vinoba Bhave are known as Blood - less revolution.

Question-19

What are the 2 important beverage crops of India?

Solution:
They are coffee and tea.

Question-20

Define shifting agriculture.

Solution:
In shifting agriculture a piece of land is cleared, crops are grown and the patch is deserted when it loses its fertility in order to regain its fertility.

Question-21

Define plantation agriculture.

Solution:
Agriculture for the production of tropical and sub-tropical crops, like bananas, coffee, cocoa, tea, cotton, palm oil, rubber, spices, sugar and sisal. Is called plantation agriculture.

Question-22

What is net sown area’?

Solution:
The area, which is actually under the cultivation and crops.

Question-23

Explain intensive agriculture.

Solution:
Agriculture with a high level of inputs, capital and labour and high yields.


Question-24

What is gross cultivated area?

Solution:
The total area on which crops are grown. It includes the area on which crops are not raised for 1 to 2 seasons.

Question-25

Define dry land farming?

Solution:
Farming without irrigation, using techniques, which conserve water for the crops.

Question-26

Define agricultural resources?

Solution:
Gifts of nature that include fertile soils, water for irrigation & favorable climatic conditions for the growth of plants.

Question-27

Which are the states in India which are famous for commercial farming?
(A) Punjab and Haryana
(B) Orissa and West Bengal
(C) Rajasthan
(D) Himachal Pradesh

Solution:
(A) Punjab and Haryana.

Question-28

Which is helpful in inventing new hybrid varieties of seeds? 
(A) Green Revolution
(B) White Revolution
(C) Genetic Engineering
(D) Scientific Research

Solution:
(C) Genetic Engineering .

Question-29

Which industry is based on agricultural raw material?
(A) Food-processing Industry
(B) Marine Industry
(C) Sericulture
(D) Pisiculture

Solution:
(A) Food-processing Industry.

Question-30

Which is not associated with primitive subsistence farming?
 
(A) Natural fertility of soil
(B) Monsoon
(C) High yield crops or seeds
(D) Involvement of family members

 


Solution:
(C) High yield crops or seeds.

Question-31

 Match the following conditions with the different crops growth: Crop Ideal condition
A. Rice (i) Temperature- 25°C, Rainfall- 100 cm-200 cm. 
B. Wheat (ii) Temperature- 20-25°C, Rainfall- 50 cm-75 cm
C. Maize (iii) Temperature- 21-27°C, Rainfall- 50 cm-75 cm
D. Pulses (iv) Temperature- 20-25°C, Rainfall- 50 cm-75 cm

(A) A-(iii), B-(iv), C-(i), D-(ii)
(B) A-(iii), B-(iv), C-(ii), D-(i)
(C) A-(i), B-(ii), C-(iii), D-(iv)
(D) A-(i), B-(ii), C-(iv), D-(iii)

 

Solution:
(C) A-(i), B-(ii), C-(iii), D-(iv)

Question-32

Which is a leguminous crop?
(A) Pulses
(B) Millets
(C) Jowar
(D) Sesamum

Solution:
(A) Pulses.

Question-33

Which is major pulse producing state in India?
(A) Kerala
(B) Goa
(C) Uttar Pradesh
(D) Punjab

Solution:
(C) Uttar Pradesh.

Question-34

 Choose the correct answer

(A) A, C and D are correct
(B) C and D are correct
(C) B, C, and D are correct
(D) All are correct

Solution:
(A) A, C and D are correct.

Question-35

Which country produces more sugarcane than the India?
(A) Australia
(B) Cuba
(C) Brazil
(D) France

Solution:
(C) Brazil.

Question-36

Match the following crops with states in India: Crops States 

(A) A-(i), B-(ii), C-(iii), D-(iv)
(B) A-(i), B-(iv), C-(iii), D-(ii)
(C) A-(i), B-(ii), C-(iv), D-(iii)
(D) A-(ii), B-(i), C-(iv), D-(iii)

Solution:
(B) A-(i), B-(iv), C-(iii), D-(ii).

Question-37

Which crop is grown in shifting cultivation?
(A) Maize
(B) Rice
(C) Wheat
(D) Millet

Solution:
(B) Rice.

Question-38

Which crop is grown in Zaid season?
(A) Rice
(B) Wheat
(C) Millets
(D) Cucumber

Solution:
(D) Cucumber.

Question-39

In which state is intensive subsistence farming largely practiced?
(A) Rajasthan

(B) Gujarat
(C) West Bengal
(D) Punjab

Solution:
(D) Punjab.

Question-40

What is a system of agriculture where a single crop is grown on a large area called?
(A) Shifting Agriculture
(B) Plantation Agriculture
(C) Horticulture
(D) Sericulture

Solution:
(B) Plantation Agriculture.

Question-41

Which are the states which have abundance of rice production?
(A) Punjab, Haryana
(B) Karnataka, Tamil Nadu
(C) Bengal, Bihar
(D) Gujarat, Maharashtra

Solution:
(C) Bengal, Bihar.

Question-42

Which is major producer of the maize in India?
(A) Bihar
(B) Punjab
(C) Haryana
(D) Himachal Pradesh

Solution:
(A) Bihar.

Question-43

Which one of the following institutions established by Government of India, helped in modernization of Agriculture?
(A) Krishidarshan
(B) Doordarshan
(C) Indian council of Agriculture
(D) Indian Institute of Agronomy

Solution:
(C) Indian council of Agriculture.

Question-44

Which system launched by government of India ensure subsidised prices for food grains to poor in rural areas?
(A) FCI
(B) Buffer Stock
(C) PDS
(D) FCD

Solution:
(C) PDS.

Question-46

Point out the five uses of jute. Why is it losing market?

Solution:
Uses - It is used in making gunny bags, mats robes, yarn, carpets and other artifacts.
Due to its high cost, it is losing market to synthetic fibres, which are much cheaper and are now used for packing materials, particularly nylon.

Question-47

What is the rank, India holds in cotton production in the world? Name the major cotton producing state of India.

Solution:
(1)India ranks third in the cotton production in the world.

(2)Major Cotton producing slates are :- Maharashtra, Gujrat, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh.


Question-48

What are the fibre crops of India and from where are there obtained?

Solution:
(1) The four major fibre crops of India are: - Cotton, jute, hemp and natural silk.

(2) Cotton, jute and hemp are derived from crops grown in the soil: Natural silk is obtained from the cocoons of silk worms fed on green leaves, especially mulberry.


Question-49

Which variety of Indian coffee is of great demand in the world and from where was it initially brought? Where was its cultivation initially?

Solution:
(1) The Arabic variety of Indian coffee is in great demand in the world.

(2) It was initially brought from Yemen and now produced in the country.

(3) Initially it was cultivated on Baba Budan hills.


Question-50

Give importance of groundnut as an oil seed? Name the largest groundnut producing states in India.

Solution:
(1)Groundnut accounts for about half of the major oil seeds produced in India.

(2)The largest producer of ground nut Is Andhra Pradesh. Other states are Tamil   Nadu,   Karnataka, Gujarat and Maharashtra.

Question-51

Give the main oil seeds grown in India. Point out 2 to 3 of their uses.

Solution:
The main oil seeds produced in India are groundnut, coconut, mustard, seamum, soya bean, castor seeds, cotton seeds, linseed and seen flower.

Uses - Most of these are edible and used in cooking. Some of them are used a raw material in the production of soap, cosmetics and ointments.

Question-52

Why are pulses usually grown in rotation with other crops? How is it important in our diet?

Solution:
All pulses except, arhar helps in soil fertility, by fixing nitrogen from the air, that is why they are mostly grown in rotation with other crops.

Role - They are a major source of protein in a vegetarian diet and India has more number of vegetarians. Also non vegetarian food is expensive and most of the Indians depend on vegetarian food.

Question-53

How is maize used? In which season is it grown? Describe briefly the soil, temperature required for the production of maize. Name 4 major maize producing states of India.

Solution:
(1) It is used as food as well as fodder.
(2) It is a Kharif crop, but in some states, like Bihar, its grown in Rabi season.
(3) It requires temperature between 21. c to 27. c, grows well in alluvial soil.

Question-54

How will the change in the cropping pattern affect the Indian Economy?

Solution:
(1) Change in the cropping pattern, for example from cereals to high value-crops will mean that India will have to import food.

(2) If India imports cereals while exporting high value commodities, it will be following successful economies like Italy, Israel and Chile.

Question-55

Why is organic farming in vogue nowadays?

Solution:
(1) It is much in vogue today, because it is practiced without factory made chemicals, such as fertilizers and pesticides.

(2) Therefore it does not affect environment in a negative manner.

Question-56

Mention two reasons for the reduction of net sown area in our country.

Solution:
Using land for non-agricultural purposes like housing, raising factories etc has resulted in reduction in net sown area.

Question-57

The excessive use of fertilizers and water has affected the soil-Explain?

Solution:
Excessive use of fertilizers and water has led to: water logging, salinity and depletion of essential micro nutrients in the soil.

Question-58

Explain the term Food Corporation of India (FCI).

Solution:
The Food Corporation of India focuses and maintains stocks of food grains. It procures food grains from the farmers at the government announced minimum support price (MSP).

Question-59

What is the lack of food security?

Solution:
Food is the basic need of every living being. If any segment of our population does not have access to food, that segment suffers from lack of food security.

Question-60

What is Green revolution?

Solution:
A term coined in late 1960’s, recent developments in agriculture in our country which have led to considerable increase in agricultural yields in certain cereals, specially wheat as a result of new seeds, application of manures, and chemical fertilizers, assured water supply and use of machinery.

Question-61

Why is food Security is a big concern for the small farmers?

Solution:
(1) Free power to a certain section of farmers has encourage them to pump ground water and grow water intensive crops in low rain fall areas also (like rice in Punjab and sugarcane in Maharashtra). As a result water storage has reduced in aquifers tube wells and many wells has run dry, which has pushed small and marginal farmers out of cultivation.

(2) Inadequate storage and marketing facilities also discourage the small farmers. Thus they are badly affected by uncertainties of production and market.

(3) They pay high prices for inputs like H.Y.V seeds; fertilizers etc., but the bargaining power to fix prices in their favour, is very less

(4) All the production reaches the market simultaneously. The higher the supply, the lower the demand. Due to all the above given reason the food scarcity of small farmers is a big concern.

Question-62

Give four measures to increase agricultural production.

Solution:
(1) Each district and block can be made self sufficient in food grain production if government provides proper agricultural infrastructure that is availability of electricity, irrigation facilities, good roads, building etc.

(2) Providing loan facilities on lower interest to cultivator.

(3) Encouraging latest techniques in agricultural and instead of concentrating on rice or wheat, the food crop with a better growth potential in that particular area must be encouraged.

(4) Attract foreign investment in agriculture and also free trade in grains which will not only increase agricultural production but will also create massive employment and reduce poverty in rural areas.


Question-63

Mention the government of India’s efforts to modernize agriculture.

Solution:
(1) Establishment of Indian council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), agricultural universities veterinary services and animal breeding centers.

(2) Horticulture development research and development in the field of metrology and weather forecast etc - have been given priority for improving India’s agriculture.

(3) Improvement in the rural infrastructure, the basic system the country needs in order to work properly (i.e) transport, communication and banking system.

(4) Encouragement to the care of machines and chemical fertilizers, development of high yielding varieties of seeds.

(5) The government has launched various schemes to protect and save plants from pests and diseases.

(6) Development of various kinds of tools and implements like factors, harvesters, thrashers etc. have led to increased population and time, minimize chances of wastage, fire and rain destroying the grains lying in the few fields.


Question-64

Give the main objectives of food security policy of government of India. What is the role of FCI?

Solution:
(1) The primary objective of India’s food security policy is to ensure availability of food grains to the common people at affordable price.

(2) The forces of the Policy is on growth in agricultural production and on fixing the support price of wheat and rice.

(3) To maintain the stocks of wheat, rice and other food grains

Organizations the FCI that is food Corporation of India is responsible for procuring and stocking food grain whereas the distribution is ensured by public distribution.


Question-65

What factors have hindered the pace of agricultural development in India?

Solution:
(1) Inspite of development of source of irrigation, most of the farmers still depend upon monsoons.

(2) Farmers still depend on natural fertilizer and manures and therefore the land does not gain fertility.

(3) Indian farmers are still using outdated tools and implements and have not implemented the use of modern farming machinery.

(4) They are still using traditional methods of farming and have not made use of new technique of farming, technical and institutional reforms.

(5) Division of land after every generation has led to fragments, allow of the land and smallholdings which have become uneconomic.


Question-66

Which crop is known as golden fibre? Describe the geographical requirements for its growth, and name the major states producing it.

Solution:
(1) Jute is known as the golden fibre.
(2) Geographical requirements: -
(a) Well drained fertile soils in the flood plains where soils are renewed every year.
(b) High temperature during the time of growth.

Question-67

Why is the production of pulses and oil seeds still lagging behind?

Solution:
(1) Though the production of oil seeds and pulses is rising but the population is growing at a greater pace.

(2) The production of pulses and oil seals is subject to fluctuation and market speculations.

(3) They need HYV seeds for high productivity, assured irrigation and chemical fertilizers, which are costly, and India farmers cannot afford them.

(4) Their support price is not attractive.

Question-68

Name the major challenges faced by the Indian farmers today?

Solution:
(1) Though the production of oil seeds and pulses is rising but the population is growing at a greater pace.

(2) The production of pulses and oil seals is subject to fluctuation and market speculations.

(3) They need HYV seeds for high productivity, assured irrigation and chemical fertilizers, which are costly, and India farmers cannot afford them.

(4) Their support price is not attractive.

Question-69

What are the implications of growing population on Indian farming?

Solution:
Following are the implications of growing population on farming:

(1)Almost every step has been taken to increase food production and now there is very little scope for increasing it further.

(2)India’s population is increasing at an alarming rate. Whatever has been advised so far in food production would soon be neutralized by this ever growing population.

Question-70

How has agriculture contributed to the national Income and employment?

Solution:
(1) Agriculture has been the backbone of Indian economy. It provides employment and livelihood to nearly 63% of India’s population (In 2001).

(2) Two thirds of India’s population is engaged in agricultural activities.

(3) Agriculture is a primary activity which produces most of the food that we consume. Besides food grains, it also produces raw materials for many industries. Some agricultural products like tea, coffee, spices etc are exported and they bring in foreign exchange for the country.

Question-71

What are the 3 main problems faced by Indian farmers today?

Solution:
The problems faced by the Indian farmers are :-

(1) There is lack of availability of water for irrigation.

(2) Most of the farmers have small holdings which are uneconomical.

(3) The high yielding variety of seeds, chemical fertilizers, insecticides, pesticides etc are expensive and our farmers find it difficult to purchase these.

(4) The soil is loosing its fertility; due to soil erosion, absence of good forests.

(5) Our farmers have to take heavy loans. Therefore, to payback these, they are compelled to sell their produce at cheap rates.

Question-72

Who introduced tea in India? Why do we say that tea is a labour intensive industry? Where is it mostly produced? Name the major tea producing states.

Solution:
(1) The British introduced tea to India.

(2) Tea is labour intensive industry because it requires abundant, cheap and skilled labour.

(3) Tea is generally processed within the tea gardens to restore its freshness.

(4) Major tea producing states are - Assam, hills of Darjeeling and Jalpaigur districts, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu, Kerala. Besides, Himachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Meghalaya, Andhra Pradesh and Tripura are also tea producing states.

Question-73

Mention the important millets grown in India. Which of them is the 3rd most important crop with respect to area and production? What is the importance of millets? Give examples.

Solution:
(1) Jowar, bajra and ragi are the most important millets of India.

(2) Jowar is the 3rd most important crop with respect to area and production.

(3) Importance - Millets have high nutritional value. For example, Ragi is very rich in iron, calcium, other micro-nutrients and roughage.

Question-74

Give the second most important cereal crop of India? When is it grown? What is the temperature, soil, rainfall, and irrigation required for its production?

Solution:
(1) Wheat is the second most important cereal crop of India.

(2) This is a rabi crop, its sown in winter from October to December.

(3) It requires a cool growing season and a bright sunshine at the time of ripening.

(4) Requires 50 to 75 cms of annual rainfall, evenly distributed over growing seasons or irrigation facilities.


Question-75

Why has Indian agriculture been transformed from subsistence to commercial farming.

Solution:
Before independence Indian agriculture was mainly that of subsistence farming, but now it has changed to commercial farming. The reasons are -

(1) The small and scattered land holdings have been consolidated and converted to large holding and ploughed on cooperative basis.

(2) The farmers have started using modern techniques of farming and scientific methods; also they have started use of fertilizers and high yielding varieties of seeds and farm machinery.

(3) Irrigation methods have improved, resulting in increased soil fertility.

(4) New methods of agriculture like rotation of crops, inter cropping, strip cropping, multiple cropping, have been adopted for better results.

(5) As a result of production of wheat, rice, sugarcane, millets etc spices, cotton, jute, tea etc has increased many times.

Due to all these reasons Indian agriculture is shifting from subsistence to commercial farming.


Question-76

Distinguish between fertilizers and manures.

Solution:
(1) Fertilizers generally refer to chemical fertilizers which are produced in factories. They contain chemical elements like phosphorus, potassium and nitrogen etc.

(2) Whereas, manures refers to green leaf manures, farm wastes, compost produced by storing cow dung and farm wastes. Manures are of biological origin and are not prepared in factories.


Question-77

What are the differences between intensive agriculture and extensive agriculture/farming.

Solution:

Intensive Agriculture

Extensive Agriculture

(1) To obtain high yields, large capitals and labourers are applied.

(1) As compared less capital and labour is applied.

(2) The size of land holding is small, production per hectare is high. (2) The size of land holding is large and production per hectare is low.
(3) Most of the production is consumed locally. (3) Surplus production is sold in the market.
(4) Manual labour and drought animals are mostly used. (4) Mechanized farming is practiced. This type of farming is practiced in sparsely populated areas.

 

Question-78

Differentiate between settled agriculture and shifting agriculture.

Solution:

Settled Agriculture

Shifting agriculture

(1) In agricultural farms, it is practiced permanently on a small or big piece of land. In this type of agriculture, size of the field is not paid much attention.

(1) In this type of agriculture the place of cultivation changes after 2 to 3 crops, when there is over growth of grass, weeds etc. It is left fallow to regain its fertility.

(2) The land / soil is often suitable for agriculture, if not it is made suitable by farmers, by using manures to increase the fertility of land. (2) The land for this type of agriculture is obtained after burning bushes etc or after cutting down trees or bushes. The farmer does not use manure to regain the fertility of the land.

 

Question-79

What are the cropping seasons are found in India? When are crops sown & harvested in each of these. With examples.

Solution:
India has 3 cropping seasons Rabi, Kharif and Zaid.

a) Rabi - Crops are sown in winter from October to December and harvested in summer from april to june. Some of the important crops are - wheat, barley, mustard, peas, grass.

b) Kharif - Crops are grown with the outset of monsoons and harvested in September - October. Important crops are - paddy, maize, jowar, bazra, tur, moong, urad, cotton, jute, ground nut, soya bean.

c) Zaid - Crops are grown between rabi and kharif, there is a short season during summer known as Zaid season. Important crops are - watermelon, muskmelon, cucumber, vegetables and fodder crops. Sugar cane takes almost a year to grow.


Question-80

Define plantation farming. What are its main characteristics? Name any five plantation crops of India.

Solution:
Plantation farming is a bush or tree farming. In this type of farming a single crop in grown on a large area. Characteristics -

This type of agriculture is found in:

(1) Hilly areas or North India, Sub Himalayas, W Bengal, Nilgiris, Andaman and cardamom hills.

(2) The plantation has an interface of agriculture and industry.

(3) Covers large areas of land.

(4) It is capital intensive, i.e it requires expensive inputs, requires skilled laboureres.

(5) All the production is used as raw material in respective industries. The important crops are tea, coffee, banana, sugarcane etc.

Question-81

Give the characteristics of commercial farming?

Solution:
(1) Use of higher doses of modern inputs, that is high yielding variety (HYV) seeds, chemical fertilizers, insecticides and pesticides in order to obtain higher productivity.

(2) Agriculture goods are mainly produced for sale.

(3) The main crops are rice, millets, spices, cotton, etc. The farmer can sell them on commercial lines.

(4) The degree of commercialization varies from one region to another. For example, rice is a commercial crop in Haryana and Punjab, but in Orissa, it is subsistence farming.

Question-82

What is slash and burn agriculture?

Solution:
In this farmers clear a patch of land and produce cereals and other crops to sustain their family, when the soil looses its fertility, the farmers shift and clear a fresh patch of land for cultivation. Nature replenishes the fertility of soil through natural processes. Land productivity in this type of agriculture is low, because the farmers do not use fertilizers or other modern inputs. It is generally known as shifting agriculture, but also known in different names in different parts of the country.

Question-83

Define subsistence farming and give its main characteristics.

Solution:
Refers to an agricultural system where crops are produced for self use or for circulation within the social networks for ritual, ceremonial exchange puposes, and some food may be sold in the market.

Characteristics:-

(a) Small scattered land holding.

(b) Primitive tools.

(c) Farmers being poor do not use fertilizers and high yielding quality seeds as per requirement, facilities like electricity, irrigation, generally is not available to farmers.

(d) It has given way to commercial agriculture to some extent.


Question-84

What are the different types of farming / agriculture practiced in India?

Solution:
(1) Primitive Subsistence Farming - Known by different name in different parts of    India,  subdivided into shifting agriculture.

(2) Intensive Subsistence Farming - Practiced in areas of high population pressure. It is labour intensive.

(3) Commercial Farming - Includes plantation farming.

Question-85

Describe the geographical conditions required for the growth of rice.

Solution:
It is a kharif crop, which requires -

(a) High Temperature - above 15. C and high humidity.

(b) Rainfall - Annual rainfall above 100cms. In areas of less rainfall, it grows with the help of irrigation.

(c) Plains of North and North-eastern India, coastal areas and deltaic regions are suitable for the growth of rice.

Question-86

What type of soil is suited for cultivation of tea?

Solution:
Deep fertile well drained soil rich in humus and organic matter is suited for cultivation of tea.

Question-87

Mention two characteristics of commercial farming.

Solution:
High doses of fertilisers and pesticides are used in commercial farming.

Question-88

Which price is announced by the government in support of a crop?

Solution:
Minimum Support Price is announced by the government in support of a crop.

Question-89

Name four major wheat producing states in India.

Solution:
Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh are the four major wheat producing states in India.

Question-90

How have technological and institutional reforms been able to improve the conditions of Indian farmers?

Solution:
The Zamindari system in which property rights are vested on absentee landlords was abolished after India became independent. Ownership rights were transferred to the actual tillers of the land. The new land owners made improvements on their lands. This led to increase in yields.

Land ceiling acts were passed to ensure that no person could hold agricultural land beyond a specified limit. The excess land was distributed among the landless labourers.

Small land holdings scattered over various places were consolidated through the Consolidation of holdings Acts passed by the State legislatures. This resulted in farmers being able to fence their lands, sink wells and use modern agricultural machinery.

Formation of Corporative societies helped farmers get seeds, pesticides and fertilizers at economical prices. All these helped improve the condition of the Indian farmers.


Question-91

What is the importance of agriculture on Indian economy? Name 3 features of Indian agriculture.

Solution:
a. India is an agricultural country.

b. Nearly two-thirds of its population depends directly on agriculture for its livelihood.

c. Agriculture is the main stay of India’s economy.

d. It accounts for 26% of the gross domestic product.

e. It ensures food security for the country and produces several raw materials for industries.

f. Agricultural development is therefore, a precondition of our national prosperity.

Features
a. Farmers own small piece of land and grow crops primarily for their own consumption.

b. Animals play a significant role in the various kinds of agricultural activities.

c. Farmers depend mainly upon monsoon rains.


Question-92

What is plantation agriculture?

Solution:
a. Plantation farming is bush or tree farming
b. The British introduced it in the nineteenth century.

c. It is a single crop farming of rubber, tea, coffee, cocoa, spices, coconut and fruits like apples, grapes, oranges etc.

d. It is capital intensive and demands good managerial ability, technical know-how, sophisticated machinery, fertilizers, irrigation and transport facilities.

e. Some of the plantations like tea, coffee, rubber have a processing factory within the farm itself or close to it.

f. This type of agriculture has developed in hilly areas of north- eastern India, sub-Himalayan, West Bengal and in Nilgiri, Anamalai and Cardamom hills in peninsular India.


Question-93

Distinguish between Rabi and Kharif Crops.

Solution:
Rabi and Kharif crops

Kharif

Rabi

1. Cultivation begins with the on set of monsoons in May.

1 Cultivation begins with the withdrawal of monsoons in October.

2. Sowing of seeds is done in June or early July.

2. Sowing of seeds is done in October- November.

3. Crops are harvested in September- October.

3. Crops are harvested in April-May.

4. Crops depend on the monsoons.

4. Crops depend on the sub-soil moisture.

5. Types: Rice, millets, maize, groundnuts, jute, cotton and various pulses.

5. Types : Wheat, gram and oil-seeds like mustard and rape- seeds

 

Question-94

Describe various technological and institutional reforms, which led to Green and White revolutions in India.

Solution:
The various technological and institutional reforms consist of various measures taken by the Central and State governments from time to time. Flooding of fields with water is now being replaced by drip irrigation and the use of sprinklers. Chemical fertilizers are being used on a large scale, to increase the farm yields. Bio- fertilisers are now supplementing them. High yielding and early maturing quality seeds have been developed. Most of these technology inputs gave birth to Green Revolution in sixties and seventies of twentieth century. White Revolution followed the Green Revolution.




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