Coupon Accepted Successfully!


Technological and Institutional Reforms



In spite of 2/3rds of the population engaged in agriculture, the development in this field is very slow.

Even though there is development in irrigation techniques, farmers still depend on monsoons for and natural fertility for growing crops.

Hence, Indian agriculture needs some reforms to be made in the techniques used in cultivation

The government also needs to make some reforms to improve agriculture which is the major contributor to the GDP.

Institutional reforms (reforms made by the government)after independence

  • Abolition of zamindari.
  • Consolidation of land holdings.
  • The laws of land reforms were introduces but the implementation was not effective.
  • Crop insurance Scheme
  • The objectives of the scheme are as under: -

To provide insurance coverage and financial support to the farmers in the event of natural   calamities, pests & diseases.

To encourage the farmers to adopt progressive farming practices high value in-puts and higher technology in Agriculture.

To help stabilize farm incomes, particularly in disaster years

  • Establishment of Co-operative Societies and Grameen banks
    These were set up by the government for providing loans to the farmers at low interest to adopt the modern technological inputs for cultivation.

Kissan Credit Card (KCC)

  • Kisan Credit Card Scheme (KCC) aims at providing adequate and timely support from the banking system to the farmers for their short-term credit needs for cultivation of crops. This mainly helps farmer for purchase of inputs etc.,during the cropping season. Credit card scheme proposed to introduce flexibility to the sytem and improve cost efficiency
  • Personal Accident Insurance Scheme (PAIS)
  • It is given to the farmers in case of accidents such as snakebite, fire accidents, tree fall and drowning.

Green Revolution :There were three basic elements in the method of the Green Revolution:

Continued expansion of farming areas;
Double-cropping existing farmland;
Using seeds with improved genetics.

White Revolution (Operation Flood)
Tremendous increase in the production of milk by using hybrid variety of cattle.

White revolution made India the leadeing producer of milk in the world.

Contribution of agriculture to Indian Economy Problems

Indian famers are facing the challenge of international competition due to globalization.

Reduction of public investment in agricultural sector.

Decrease in the subsidy on fertilizers has led to increase in the cost of production.

Withdrawal of investment from agriculture by the farmers has resulted in downfall in the employment in agriculture.

Conversion of agricultural lands into residential plots .

Test Your Skills Now!
Take a Quiz now
Reviewer Name