Types of Farming
Based on the nature of land, climatic conditions, technological knowhow and available irrigational facilities, the farmers in India practice different types of farming.
1. Subsistence Farming
2. Shifting Agriculture
3. Plantation Agriculture
Primitive Subsistence FarmingThis ancient method of farming is still practised in some region of India. In this type of farming the members of a family or a small community cultivate food crops on a small piece of land using primitive tools like hoe, dao, digging sticks etc. for self consumption.
This type of farming entirely depends on nature for water and fertility.
Slash and burn or Shifting agriculture :-
This is a type of farming where farmers clear a patch of forest (usually by burning) and cultivate food crops for their family till the fertility of the soil is lost.
When the fertility of the soil is lost, the farmer shifts to another place and clears another patch of forest and cultivates the same.
Like this the farmer keeps shifting from place to place . The farmers do not use any kind of fertilizers or other modern inputs. It is practised in tropical rain forest regions.
Its known by different names in different parts of India like :
Jhumming in Mizoram, Assam, Meghalaya, and Nagaland
Pamlou in Manipur
Dipa in Basthar of Chattisgarh and Andaman & Nicobar Islands.
Some of the crops grown in shifting agriculture are bananas, plantains, cassava, beans, rice, maize, and millet.
Intensive Subsistence Farming
It is a type of farming where more number of people are engaged in cultivating a small piece of land. It is generally practised in thickly populated regions.
Farmers use more of chemical fertilizers to get the maximum yield.
This type of farming is prevalent in many parts of India due to the growing population and the 'right of inheritance' which has led to decrease in the size of land holding.
Main crop grown in this type of farming is rice.
It is a type of farming where crops are grown on a large scale for selling them in the market.
Modern inputs like HYV seeds, fertilizers, insecticides and pesticides are used to maximise the yield.
Plantation Agriculture: It is a type of farming where a single crop is grown on a large scale for commercial purpose. Cash crops are grown in such type of farming.
Plantation agriculture requires large tracts of land, huge capital, skilled labour, modern machinery etc.
Tea, coffee, rubber, banana, are some of the crops grown in this farming.
Tea plantation Rubber plantation
Coffee plantation Banana plantation