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Emergency Communication

The different modes of emergency communication are …

Radio Communication
(i) Wireless radio communication network

(ii) Amateur radio or HAM

Satellite based Communication system
(i) Geo - stationary satellites

(ii) Sun synchronous satellites


Wireless Radio Communication Network
Electromagnetic waves or radio waves are propagated by an antenna. Radio waves have different frequencies and by tuning a radio receiver to a specific frequency one can receive the required signals.

Frequency bands…

  • Very low frequency
  • Low frequency
  • Medium frequency
  • High frequency
  • Very high frequency
  • Ultra high frequency
  • Super high frequency
  • Extremely high frequency
  • High frequency bands can travel across the world. This band the radio waves are reflected from the ionosphere.

    Ultra high frequency bands are used in wireless walky talky sets. These play a very important role in emergency communication.

    Amateur Radio or HAM

    Amateur radio is also known as ‘Ham radio’. The Ham radio works on the same principle as the ordinary radio, the only difference being the user of this mode of transmission has to follow certain frequencies as defined by the International Telecommunication Union. In India the ‘Ham radio is controlled by the Wireless Planning and Coordination Wing of the Ministry of Telecommunication.

    Rules to be followed by Ham radio operator

  • The frequencies can be used only for research, education and personal use
  • The frequencies cannot be used for commercial purposes
  • HAM radio does not use ground based infrastructure. As it requires limited power supply it runs on batteries. Hence during disasters the HAM radio is used.

    HAM Radio Set

    HAM Radio Antenna

    Growth of HAM radio in India

    There are 15,000 licensed HAM radio operators in India. HAM radio operators are known as Hams. Hams are expected to help the government during emergencies. Their network is used for communication during disasters. Hams are using satellites for communication nowadays.


    Amateur radio stations are providing training for people who are interested in becoming HAM operators. The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has developed HAMSAT, a micro satellite, to provide satellite based services to HAM operators in India and all over the world.


    ISRO's Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle, PSLV-C6, launched India's remote sensing satellite, the 1,560 kg CARTOSAT-1, along with a 42.5 kg piggyback satellite, HAMSAT, in a 618 km polar Sun Synchronous Orbit (SSO).

    HAMSAT Satellite in Orbit

    HAMSAT – A Close-Up View

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