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Question-1

Write a brief note on the statue of the Goddess of Democracy.

Solution:
The Goddess of Democracy was a 10 metre high statue created during the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, in China. It was inspired by New York’s Statue of Liberty. It was constructed from styrofoam and papier-mâché in only four days by students of the Central Academy of Fine Arts.

It was erected in Tiananmen Square on 30 May, facing the large portrait of Mao Zedong on Tiananmen Gate, and was destroyed by the army during the massacre on 4 June.

Question-2

What are the challenges faced by non-democratic countries?

Solution:
The main challenge faced by non-democratic governments is the foundational challenge of making the transition to democracy. They have to institute a democratic government by bringing down the existing non-democratic regime and keeping the military from controlling the government. It has to establishing a sovereign and functional state.

Question-3

Mention the three main challenges faced by a democracy.

Solution:
The three main challenges are the Foundational challenge, the Challenge of expansion and the challenge of Deepening of democracy.

Question-4

What are reforms?

Solution:
When challenges are there, they should be faced and resolved. To resolve challenges we need reforms. These reforms are called ‘democracy reform’ or ‘political reform’

As all the countries do not face the same challenges, reforms also differ according to the need.

Challenges have to be faced at the grass root level that is at the State and local level.


Question-5

What are the challenges faced by democratic governments?

Solution:
Democratic governments face the challenge of expansion. The basic principle of a democratic government has to be established across all the regions, different social groups and various institutions. Greater power should be delegated to local governments. Federal principles have to be extended to all the units of the federation. Women and minority groups should be included in decision making. Strengthening of the institutions and practices of democracy should happen so that people can realise their expectations of democracy.

Different societies have different expectations from different democracies.So, each country has to deal in a unique way to face the challenge, people in that particular country face. If this is to be done peoples’ participation is necessary and the control and influence of the rich and powerful people have to be toned down.


Question-6

What do we mean by challenge of expansion?

Solution:
The challenge of expansion involves applying the basic principle of democratic government across all the regions, different social groups and various institutions. Greater power should be given to local governments. Federal principles have to be extended to all the units of the federation. Women and minority groups should be include in the decision-making process. That is less and less decisions should remain outside the arena of democratic control. Most countries including India and other democracies like the US face this challenge.

Question-7

What do we mean by challenge of deepening of democracy?

Solution:
The challenge of deepening of democracy is faced by all the democracies across the globe. It involves strengthening of the institutions and practices of democracy. This should happen in such a way that people can realise their expectations of democracy. People have different expectations from democracy in different societies. Therefore, this challenge takes different meanings and paths in different parts of the world. The challenge is to strengthen the institutions that help people’s participation and control.

The challenge is also to bring down the control and influence of the rich and powerful people in making governmental decisions.


Question-8

What are the Guidelines for political reforms in India?

Solution:
Four important guidelines have to be kept in mind when political reforms are carried out. When laws are being revised the government has to be carefully to ensure that wrong political practises are not encouraged. Laws alone cannot resolve challenges; democratic reforms are to be carried out mainly by political activists, parties, movements and politically conscious citizens.

Any legal change must carefully look at what results it will have on politics. Sometimes the results may be counter-productive. Generally, laws that seek to ban something are not very successful in politics. Laws that give politicians incentives to do good things have more chances of working.

Political reforms should empower people to carry out democratic reforms. The Right to Information Act is a good example of a law that empowers the people to find out what is happening in government and act as watchdogs of democracy. Such a law helps to control corruption and supplements the existing laws that banned corruption and imposed strict penalties.

Democratic reforms should be carried out through political practice. They should strengthen democratic practices. Political reforms are of no use if they are not implemented. So, political reforms should be formulated, with implementation as the focal factor.


Question-9

Mention the three main challenges faced by a democracy.

Solution:
The three main challenges are the Foundational challenge, the Challenge of expansion and the challenge of Deepening of democracy.

Question-10

What does deepening democracy mean?

Solution:
Deepening democracy means strengthening institutions that help people’s participation in governance.

Question-11

What is involved in foundational challenge in a democracy?

Solution:
Bringing down the existing non-democratic government is the foundational challenge involved.

Question-12

Which law empowers the people to act as watch dogs of the government in a democracy?

Solution:
Right to Information Act is the law that empowers the people to act as watch dogs of the government in a democracy

Question-13

What are the challenges faced by non-democratic countries?

Solution:
The main challenge faced by non-democratic governments is the foundational challenge of making the transition to democracy. They have to institute a democratic government by bringing down the existing non-democratic regime and keeping the military from controlling the government. It has to establishing a sovereign and functional state.

Question-14

What are reforms?

Solution:
When challenges are there, they should be faced and resolved. To resolve challenges we need reforms. These reforms are called ‘democracy reform’ or ‘political reform’

As all the countries do not face the same challenges, reforms also differ according to the need. Challenges have to be faced at the grass root level that is at the State and local level.


Question-15

What do we mean by challenge of expansion?

Solution:
The challenge of expansion involves applying the basic principle of democratic government across all the regions, different social groups and various institutions. Greater power should be given to local governments. Federal principles have to be extended to all the units of the federation. Women and minority groups should be include in the decision-making process. That is less and less decisions should remain outside the arena of democratic control. Most countries including India and other democracies like the US face this challenge.




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