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Question-1

Why is per capital income considered as an important criterion for development?

Solution:
Per capital income is considered an important criterion for development as without financial resources no country can provide facilities for education or health services.

Question-2

Expansion of retail chains owned by big industrialists.

Solution:
Growth of high salary high tech jobs adds to national income but does not help growth in over all employment opportunities for different grades of labourers. Expansion of retail chains by big business houses creates unemployment among the existing small scale traders and vendors.

Question-3

Increase in total income of a country may or may not lead to greater welfare of the masses. Comment on this.

Solution:
Increase in total income of a country can be beneficial if the increase is evenly spread over different social groups. However if only the rich get richer and the poor remain where they were, income growth does not lead to growth in social welfare. Growth of high tech jobs has made things better off for only a select group of people in India. The great majority of people specially in the rural sector have remained untouched by the boom in national economy.

Question-4

Money alone cannot provide all that makes life worth living. Discuss this statement.

Solution:
Money by itself is not a completely adequate indicator of total welfare. For example money incomes may be high in an industrial colony but the environment may be polluted. There may be insufficient provisions for health care. The educational facilities for children may be expensive. In the absence of these facilities, high money incomes alone would not be enough.

Question-5

How can development be made sustainable? Illustrate with examples from everyday life.

Solution:
Development can be made sustainable if the existing resources are used in a planned manner. Enough must be left for the coming generations. Emphasis should be developing renewable sources of energy and recycling of metals.

Question-6

Give suggestions for ensuring a better distribution of existing water resources within the country.

Solution:
Ground water is under serious threat of over use in many parts of the country. Overuse is common in parts of country like Punjab and Western U.P which are agriculturally prosperous regions. We should use only as much ground water as is replenished by rain. Rain water harvesting, putting reasonable restrictions on drilling of wells, and restricting use of water for all and for all times to come.

Question-7

Which attribute is considered important for comparing different countries? Does it provide the whole picture?

Solution:
The attribute considered important for comparing development over different countries is ‘per capita income’. This however provides no information about the distribution of national income over various groups of people in the country.

Question-8

Give one example of environmental degradation.

Solution:
Scarcity of water is once example of the ill effects of environmental degradation.

Question-9

Discuss the disparities in literacy rates in India.

Solution:
There are wide disparities in literacy rates for Males and Females in rural population. In Uttar Pradesh for example the literacy rate for Males is 52% while for females it is as low as 19%.

Question-10

What should be the main criteria of development?

Solution:
Development that leads to environmental degradation can be a curse for the entire planet and not just the polluting country. Excessive emissions from automobiles can lead to global warming endangering the very existence of a large number sea ports across the world.

Question-11

Why is per capital income considered as an important criterion for development?

Solution:
Per capital income is considered an important criterion for development as without financial resources no country can provide facilities for education or health services.

Question-12

How can development be made sustainable? Illustrate with examples from everyday life.

Solution:
Development can be made sustainable if the existing resources are used in a planned manner. Enough must be left for the coming generations. Emphasis should be developing renewable sources of energy and recycling of metals.

Question-13

Give one example of environmental degradation.

Solution:
Scarcity of water is once example of the ill effects of environmental degradation.


Question-14

Discuss the disparities in literacy rates in India.

Solution:
There are wide disparities in literacy rates for Males and Females in rural population. In Uttar Pradesh for example the literacy rate for Males is 52% while for females it is as low as 19%.

Question-15

What should be the main criteria of development?

Solution:
Development that leads to environmental degradation can be a curse for the entire planet and not just the polluting country. Excessive emissions from automobiles can lead to global warming endangering the very existence of a large number sea ports across the world.




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