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What does gender division refer to?

Gender division refers to the unequal roles assigned to men and women by the society.


Name 2 countries where participation of women in public life is very high.

Sweden and Norway are the 2 countries where participation of women in public life is very high


Mention 2 essential characteristic of a secular state.

A secular state allows its citizens to practise and propagate any religion or not follow any religion at all. The constitution of the state prohibits any discrimination on the basis of religion


What is meant by caste hierarchy?

Caste hierarchy is a grading of groups from the highest to the lowest castes , for example, the Brahmins to the untouchables.


What is Communalism?

The term Communalism is widely used across South Asia to describe the systematic misuse of religion for political purposes. It represents the processes of political construction of community identities along religious lines. Communal politics represents one’s own religious community in an antagonistic relationship with 'the other religious community.' Socially engineered prejudice, tension and conflict between religious communities constitute communalism. Communalism Combat stands for equal respect to all religions and is opposed to the cynical manipulation of faith in the pursuit of power; therefore, we are opposed to both majority and minority communalism.


Write a brief note on the Hindu caste system.

The Hindu caste system reflects Indian occupational and socially defined hierarchies. Ancient Sanskrit sources divide society into four major categories, priests or Brahmin, warriors or Kshatriya, traders or Vaishya and labourers or the Shudra. In addition to these castes we also have the "untouchables."

The Indian society is divided into thousands of jatis, which are local groups based on occupation.

Despite economic modernisation and laws countering discrimination against the lower end of the caste structure and outlawing "untouchables," the caste system remains an important source of social identification and a potent factor in the political life of the country.


What are the positive aspects of caste system in Indian politics?

The caste system plays different kinds of roles in politics. In some situations, expression of caste differences in politics gives many disadvantaged communities the space to demand their share of power. In this aspect caste politics has helped people from Dalits and Backward Castes to gain better access to decision making.

Several political and non-political organisations have been demanding and agitating for an end to discrimination against particular castes, for more dignity and more access to land, resources and opportunities.

Caste privilege and solidarity provide a kind of safety net. This will probably change as economic competition intensifies; but caste assertion largely precludes class solidarity.

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