Coupon Accepted Successfully!


Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants

This form of reproduction involves two sexes, male and female, which produce specialized sex cells called gametes. The male gametes are called sperms whereas female gametes are called ova (eggs). Regardless of the type of animal or plant, sexual reproduction involves the fusion of the nuclei of the male and the female gametes. This process is known as fertilization. The product of fusion is a single cell called zygote which develops into a complete individual. In flowering plants, flowers contain the reproductive organs of the plant which is the androecium which is the male reproductive part and the gynoecium which is the female reproductive system of the plant. The whorls include calyx [sepals] and corolla, [petals] sometimes the calyx and the corolla are fused and they are called as the perianth.  When one flower consists of both the sexes, it is called a bisexual flower of hermaphrodite, e.g. China rose ,petunia, lilies, etc. When one flower contains either of the sex organs it is called a unisexual flower, e.g. mango, papaya.

L.S of a Flower

Both the male and female gametes of the flower are incapable of movement. The problem of their coming together for fertilization is overcome by the process of pollination. In this process pollen grains are transferred by various agencies such as wind, water, insects and other animals to the stigma. Once on the stigma, the pollen grain produces a pollen tube to reach the ovum. The male gamete contains two cells, the vegetative nucleus and the generative nucleus. Both travel through this tube. The first nucleus fuses with the egg and the second nucleus fuses with the two haploid polar bodies to form the primary endosperm nucleus. This fusion is called triple fusion.

After fertilization the zygote forms the seed and the ovary becomes the fruit. The ovary protects the seeds, until they are mature and ready to grow into plants. At such a stage various agencies, as in pollination, help the seed to spread away from the main plant. This process is called seed dispersal.


Test Your Skills Now!
Take a Quiz now
Reviewer Name