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Question-1

Why is transport a necessity?

Solution:
Transport is necessary to carry passengers and goods from one place to another.

Question-2

Name five means of transport.

Solution:
There are five types of transport systems in India: roadways, railways, pipelines, waterways and airways.

Question-3

Why is communication a necessity of life?

Solution:
Communication is an essential requirement of human life. No one can live without interacting with others. Earlier communication between people was less and only face to face.

Now it has increased and the modes of communication have also changed. The increase in population and the change in the modes of communication are the result of increased human movement and transport of materials and goods. Today, we are living in the age of communication, using telephone, television, films and Internet. Even books, magazines and newspapers are the important means of communication. Various means of transport and communication have reduced distances, bringing the world closer.

Question-4

Name different categories of the means of communication.

Solution:
The means of communication are divided into two categories. They are means of personal and mass communication. In the former, we include postcard, letter, telegram, telephone, and now, Internet. The latter includes books, journals, magazines, newspapers, radio, television, and films. These are of two types : (a)print media (i.e., books, newspapers) and (b)electronic media (i.e., radio, television, films, computers).

Question-5

What is mass communication?

Solution:
Mass communication plays a vital role in creating awareness among the people about various national programmes and policies. These provide healthy entertainment as well. Important means of mass communication are radio, television, newspapers including magazines, books and films. These means communicate with several people at a time, and, hence, are called means of mass communication.

Question-6

Why is railway so important today?

Solution:
The railways are the main artery of inland transport in India (Fig. 6.3). It is the lifeline of the country for large-scale movement of traffic – freight and passengers. The railways are 150 years old in India. The total length of railways is about 63,000 km. With this length, India has the second largest railway network in Asia. The Indian railways carry 40,000 lakh passengers and 4,000 lakh tonnes of goods a year. It is the largest public sector undertaking of the country.

Question-7

The Great Plains has more railways than the Himalayan Mountains. Why?

Solution:
The distribution pattern of the railway network in the country has been influenced by physiographic, economic and administrative factors. Level land of the great plains of India, with high density of population and rich agriculture and greater industrial activity, have favoured development of railways in these areas. Flood plains of Bihar and Assam, and the rugged topography of the Himalayan region, have very few railway lines. Sparsely populated sandy deserts of Rajasthan and hilly tracts of the Sahyadri are unfavourable for the development of railways.

Question-8

What are the problems of railways today?

Solution:
Railway transport suffers from certain problems as well. Many passengers travel without tickets. They pull chains unnecessarily, which leads to late running of trains. People stop trains, which causes heavy losses to the Railways. Thefts and damaging of Railway property have not yet stopped completely.

Question-9

What are national highways?

Solution:
National highways connect one state with another and are of national importance. These roads are constructed and maintained by the central government. There is about 52,000 km of national highways.

Question-10

What are Expressway national highways?

Solution:
The Expressway national highways have been planned to meet the requirement of fast movement of traffic in the country.

Question-11

Name the places, which will be connected by golden quadrilateral Expressway highways.

Solution:
Golden Quadrilateral, connecting Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata and Delhi, will have a length of 5846 km.

Question-12

Write the advantages of pipeline transportation for petroleum and natural gas.

Solution:
Pipelines are now used for transportation of crude oil, petroleum products and natural gas from oil and natural gas fields to refineries, fertilizer factories and big thermal power plants. Such thermal power plants can now be constructed in a much shorter time and very close to their markets.

Question-13

Name any four international airports of India.

Solution:
Chennai, Kolkata, Delhi and Bombay

Question-14

Name two inland waterways of India.

Solution:
1. The Ganga river,between Allahabad and Haldia (1620 km).

2.The Brahmaputra river, between Sadiya 3. Dhubri (891 km).

4. The West-coast canal, between Kollam and Kottayam (168 km).


Question-15

Name the major ports on the east coast of India

Solution:
Kolkata/Haldia, Paradip, Vishakhapatnam, Chennai, Ennore and Tuticorin are the major ports located on the east coast of India.

Question-16

Name the states where Mormugao, New Mangalore, Paradip and Tuticorin ports are located.

Solution:
Mormugao – Goa

New Mangalore – Karnataka

Paradip – Andhra Pradesh

Tuticorin – Tamil Nadu


Question-17

Name three means of mass communication.

Solution:
Books, magazines and newspapers are the three means of communication.

Question-18

What is meant by favourable balance of trade? Whether India’s foreign trade is favourable?

Solution:
If the value of exports is more than the value of imports, it is called a favourable balance of trade.

Question-19

Distinguish between Personal Communication and Mass Communication.

Solution:
Personal Communication is the means of communication between individuals.

Mass Communication is the means of communication reaching up to the masses, including doordarshan, radio, press, films, etc. Mass communication plays a vital role in creating awareness among the people about various national programmes and policies.


Question-20

Describe the importance of communication in modern days.

Solution:
Modern life is so complex that one has to depend on others. The same is true of the countries as well. No country today can prosper without the co-operation and assistance of others. This requires movement of goods and materials between countries. Trade provides us with our necessities and also adds to amenities and comfort of life.

Question-21

Describe various types of roads of India.

Solution:
The different types of roads in India are the national highways, state highways, district roads, village roads and border roads. Besides these, there are international highways, and free ways free ways (express ways).

Question-22

Why is communication a necessity of life?

Solution:
Communication is an essential requirement of human life. No one can live without interacting with others. Earlier communication between people was less and only face to face.

Now it has increased and the modes of communication have also changed. The increase in population and the change in the modes of communication are the result of increased human movement and transport of materials and goods. Today, we are living in the age of communication, using telephone, television, films and Internet. Even books, magazines and newspapers are the important means of communication. Various means of transport and communication have reduced distances, bringing the world closer.

Question-23

What is mass communication?

Solution:
Mass communication plays a vital role in creating awareness among the people about various national programmes and policies. These provide healthy entertainment as well. Important means of mass communication are radio, television, newspapers including magazines, books and films. These means communicate with several people at a time, and, hence, are called means of mass communication.

Question-24

Why is railways so important today?

Solution:
The railways are the main artery of inland transport in India (Fig. 6.3). It is the lifeline of the country for large-scale movement of traffic – freight and passengers. The railways are 150 years old in India. The total length of railways is about 63,000 km. With this length, India has the second largest railway network in Asia. The Indian railways carry 40,000 lakh passengers and 4,000 lakh tonnes of goods a year. It is the largest public sector undertaking of the country.

Question-25

The great plains has more railways than the Himalayan mountains. Why?

Solution:
The distribution pattern of the railway network in the country has been influenced by physiographic, economic and administrative factors. Level land of the great plains of India, with high density of population and rich agriculture and greater industrial activity, have favoured development of railways in these areas. Flood plains of Bihar and Assam, and the rugged topography of the Himalayan region, have very few railway lines. Sparsely populated sandy deserts of Rajasthan and hilly tracts of the Sahyadri are unfavourable for the development of railways.

Question-26

What has been the content and direction of India’s International Trade, and mention the major sea ports of India.?

Solution:
India has been mainly exporting goods to countries in Asia, Western Europe and America. These countries account for our imports also.

Manufactured goods like, gems and jewellery, ready made garments, agricultural products and mineral ores are our main exports.

Imports include petroleum products, precious stones, gold silver and chemicals.

The major seaports on the east coast are Kolkatta and Vishakhapattinam and on the west coast the major ports are Mumbai and Mangalore.





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