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Representation of images formed by Spherical Mirrors Using Ray diagram

Drawing Ray Diagrams for Spherical Mirrors
 
We can determine the location, size and nature (real or virtual, inverted or erect) by drawing the ray diagrams. We take at least two rays coming from any given point on the object. Wherever they actually meet (or appear to meet) after reflection from the mirror, is the real (or virtual) image of that point. In this manner, taking one point on the object after another, the entire image can be constructed.
 
In order to draw a ray diagram, any two of the following rays are the most convenient rays.
  1. Ray parallel to the principal axis, after reflection, will pass through the principal focus in case of a concave mirror or appear to diverge from the principal focus in case of convex mirror.
 
  1. Ray passing through the principal focus of a concave mirror or a ray which is directed towards the principal focus of a convex mirror, after reflection, will emerge parallel to the principal axis.

 
  1. A ray passing through the centre of curvature of a concave mirror or convex mirror will be reflected back in the same direction.

 
  1. A ray incident obliquely to the principal axis towards a point p on the concave mirror or a convex mirror is reflected obliquely. The incident and reflected rays follow the laws of reflection at the point of incidence, making equal angles with the principal axis.

 

The Location, Size and Nature of the Image by Concave Mirror for Various Positions of the Object

Position of the Object

Position of the Image

Size of the Image

Nature of the Image

Between P and F

Behind the mirror

Magnified

Virtual, erect

At F

At infinity

Highly magnified

Virtual, erect

Between F and C

Beyond C

Magnified

Real, inverted

At C

At C

Same size

Real, inverted

Beyond C

Between F and C

Diminished

Real, inverted

At infinity

At F

Highly diminished

Real, inverted

 

 
 
 

Uses of concave mirror
 
It is commonly used in torches, search-lights and in the headlights of vehicles.
 
It is used by dentists to see the large images of the teeth of patients.
 
It is used in shaving mirrors to see a larger image of the face.

Large concave mirrors are used to concentrate sunlight to produce heat in solar furnaces

​Image formation by Convex Mirror

At infinity
 
If the position of the object is at infinity, then the image is formed behind the mirror at the focus F. The image is highly diminished and point sized, virtual and erect.


Between infinity and pole P of the mirror

 
If the position of the object is between infinity and pole P of the mirror, the image is formed behind the mirror between P and F. The image is diminished, virtual and erect.
 


Uses of Convex Mirrors

 

Convex mirrors are commonly used as rear-view mirrors in vehicles.





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