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  • A compass needle is a small magnet. Its one end, which points towards north, is called a north pole, and the other end, which towards south, is called a south pole.
  • A magnetic field exists in the in a region surrounding a magnet, in which the force of the magnet can be detected.
  • Field lines are used to represent a magnetic field. A field is the path along which a hypothetical free north pole would tend to move. The direction of the magnetic field at a point is given by the direction that a north pole placed at that point would take. Field lines are shown closer together where the magnetic field is greater.
  • A metallic wire carrying an electric current has associated with it a magnetic field. The field lines about the wire consist of a series of concentric circles whose direction is given by the right-hand rule.
  • The pattern of the magnetic field around a conductor due to an electric current flowing through it depends on the shape of the conductor. The magnetic field of a solenoid carrying currents is similar to that of a bar magnet.
  • An electromagnet consist of a core of soft iron wrapped around with a coil of insulated copper wire.
  • A current carrying conductor when placed in a magnetic field experiences a force. If the direction of the field and that of the current are mutually perpendicular to each other, then the force acting on the conductor will be perpendicular to both and will be given by Fleming's right hand rule. This is the basis of an electric motor. An electric motor is a device that convert electrical energy in to mechanical energy.
  • The phenomenon of electromagnetic induction is the production of induced current in a coil placed in a region where the magnetic field changes with time. The magnetic field may change due to a relative motion between the coil and a magnet placed near to the coil. If the coil is placed near to a current carrying conductor, the magnetic field may change either due to a change in the current through the conductor or due to the relative motion between the coil and the conductor. The direction of the induced current is given by the Fleming's right- hand rule.
  • A generator converts mechanical energy in to electrical energy. It works on the basis of electromagnetic induction.
  • In our houses we receive AC electric power of 220 v with frequency of 50 Hz. One of the wire in this supply is with red insulation, called live wire. The other one is of black insulation, which is a nuetral wire. The potential difference between the two is 220 v. The is the earth wire that has green insulation and this connected to metallic body deep inside earth. It is used as a safty measure to ensure that any leakage of current to a metallic body does not give any severe shock to a user.
  • Fuse is the most important safty device, used for proctecting the circuits due to short-circuiting or over loading of the circuits.

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