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Question-1

Name the three physical factors that affect location of industries.

Solution:
The three factors are
a. Availability of raw materials.

b. Power resources

c. Favorable climate.

Question-2

Name three human inputs that control location of industries.

Solution:
Human inputs that control location of industries is:1. Labour 2. Market 3. Transport facilities.

Question-3

What are light industries?

Solution:
Industries that use light raw materials and produce light goods are called light industries.
Example: Industries manufacturing sewing machine and electric fans.

Question-4

Name four important cotton textile centres of Maharashtra.

Solution:
The cotton textile centres of Maharashtra are:1. Mumbai, 2. Solapur, 3. Pune, 4. Nagpur.

Question-5

Why are most of the jute mills of India located in West Bengal?

Solution:
1. About 90% of India’s jute is produced in the Ganga- Brahmaputra delta. Hence there is abundant and regular supply of jute.
2. Coal is obtained from Raniganj coalfields, which is less the 200km away.

3. Hooghly river provides fresh water in abundance it the industry for washing jute and jute goods.

4. Cheap skilled and unskilled labour is available from the densely populated states of W.Bengal, Bihar, and U.P.

5. Cheap water transportation with a network of roads and railways help in collection of raw materials and distribution of finished goods.

6. Cheap and adequate hydel power is available from the Damodar Valley Corporation (DVC).

7. Kolkata provides good port facilities for the import of machinery and export of finished jute products.

8. There is no dearth of finances required to be invested.


Question-6

Name two most important sugar producing states of India.

Solution:
Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra.

Question-7

Name two iron and steel producing plants each of Karnataka and West Bengal.

Solution:
Iron and steel plants of Karnataka are – Bhadravati and Vijayanagar, West Bengal- Durgapur and Burnpur.

Question-8

Name five electronic goods producing centres of India.

Solution:
Five electronic goods producing centers are Banglore, Hyderabad , Delhi, Mumbai , Chennai.

Question-9

What is the annual production of cement in the country at present?

Solution:
131 million tones production of cement per annum in India.

Question-10

Describe briefly the distribution of railway equipments industries in India.

Solution:
The railway equipments industries are at different places.

The steam engines, diesel engines and electric engines are manufactured at Chittaranjan in the West Bengal, Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh and Jamshedpur in Jharkhand. Rails and sleeper bars are manufactured at different steel plants. Coaches are manufactured at Parambur, Bangalore, Kapurthala and Kolkata.


Question-11

Why is the iron and steel industry located in Peninsular India only?

Solution:
Iron-ore, coking coal and limestone are the basic raw material for the iron and steel industry. Iron and steel industry is located near the iron and coal deposits particularly at Jamshedpur in Bihar or in the Chhotanagpur area, bordering West Bengal, Bihar, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh, because of the following reasons:

1. All the raw materials required for iron and steel industry like iron-ore, coking coal and the limestone are available in this area.
2. Because all these things are heavy and bulky ,the location of this industry is therefore, governed by the close proximity to raw materials. Bulky and heavy raw materials exert much pressure to locate the industry nearby i.e., in the Chhotanagpur area. Jamshedpur, Bokaro and Durgapur etc, are all situated in this area.

3. Means of transport, like railways and roads, also pass through this area on stupendous scale, so manufactured goods can easily be distributed within the country and also exported to other countries.

4. Fourthly, if the iron and steel industries are near the iron and coal mines, the labour problem is also solved to a great extent. The labour and other facilities are easily available there.


Question-12

Describe briefly the distribution of silk textile industry in India.

Solution:
Distribution of Silk Textile Industry in India

1. Mulberry, tasar, chanderi and munga silk are major silk varieties that are produced in India.
2. There are 90 big and small silk mills, producing silk goods in the country.

3. More than 90% of the country’s silk production comes from Karnataka, West Bengal, Jammu and Kashmir.

4. Main silk producing centers are. (I) Bungler, Kolar, Mysore and Belgaum in Karnataka.

(ii) Murshabad and Bankure in West Bengal.

(iii) Anantnag, Baramula and Srinagar in Jammu and Kashmir.


Question-13

Describe the distribution of ship-building industry in India.

Solution:
Ship building Industry in India
1.Ship building is a large industry, which needs huge investment of capital.

2. At present, Vishakapattanam, Kolkatta, Kochi, Mumbai and Marmugao are major ship building centres of the country. All these centres are in public sector.

3.There are also private sector shipyards. They look after the local needs of the people.

4. Vishakapattanam produces the ship of maximum size of 1,00,000 DWT (Dead weight Tonnage) and Kochi produces the ship of maximum size of 50,000 DWT.

5.Seventeen dry docks are also engaged in the repairs of ships in the country.



Question-14

How does industrial pollution degrade environment?

Solution:
Industries have increased pollution and degraded environment. Industries create four types of pollution mainly air, water, land and noise. The smoke emitted by the industry pollutes the air and water very badly. Air pollution is caused by the presence of a higher proportion of undesirable gases such as carbon monoxide and sulphur oxide.
Source of water pollution are numerous. Most important are the industrial effluent that discharge into rivers. They are both organic and inorganic. They pollute the water. Unwanted loud noise is also pollution. It arises from industries and other means of transport. Noise causes impairment of hearing.

Question-15

Name three major air pollutants.

Solution:
Air borne dust, smoke and undesirable gases are three major air pollutants.

Question-16

What is ‘manufacturing?

Solution:
Manufacturing is the production of goods in large quantities by processing from raw material to more valuable products.

Question-17

List four agro based industries.

Solution:
Sugar, edible oil, cotton and silk are agro based industries.

Question-18

Mention 4 raw materials needed for a cement industry.

Solution:
Lime stone, silica, alumina and gypsum are the raw materials needed for a cement industry

Question-19

Why are most of the jute mills of India located in West Bengal?

Solution:
1. About 90% of India’s jute is produced in the Ganga- Brahmaputra delta. Hence there is abundant and regular supply of jute.
2. Coal is obtained from Raniganj coalfields, which is less the 200km away.

3. Hooghly river provides fresh water in abundance it the industry for washing jute and jute goods.

4. Cheap skilled and unskilled labour is available from the densely populated states of W.Bengal, Bihar, and U.P.

5. Cheap water transportation with a network of roads and railways help in collection of raw materials and distribution of finished goods.

6. Cheap and adequate hydel power is available from the Damodar Valley Corporation (DVC).

7. Kolkata provides good port facilities for the import of machinery and export of finished jute products.

8. There is no dearth of finances required to be invested.


Question-20

Why is the iron and steel industry located in Peninsular India only?

Solution:
Iron-ore, coking coal and limestone are the basic raw material for the iron and steel industry. Iron and steel industry is located near the iron and coal deposits particularly at Jamshedpur in Bihar or in the Chhotanagpur area, bordering West Bengal, Bihar, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh, because of the following reasons:

1. All the raw materials required for iron and steel industry like iron-ore, coking coal and the limestone are available in this area.

2. Because all these things are heavy and bulky ,the location of this industry is therefore, governed by the close proximity to raw materials. Bulky and heavy raw materials exert much pressure to locate the industry nearby i.e., in the Chhotanagpur area. Jamshedpur, Bokaro and Durgapur etc, are all situated in this area.

3. Means of transport, like railways and roads, also pass through this area on stupendous scale, so manufactured goods can easily be distributed within the country and also exported to other countries.

4. Fourthly, if the iron and steel industries are near the iron and coal mines, the labour problem is also solved to a great extent. The labour and other facilities are easily available there.


Question-21

Describe the distribution of ship-building industry in India.

Solution:
Ship building Industry in India

1.Ship building is a large industry, which needs huge investment of capital.

2. At present, Vishakapattanam, Kolkatta, Kochi, Mumbai and Marmugao are major ship building centres of the country. All these centres are in public sector.

3.There are also private sector shipyards. They look after the local needs of the people.

4. Vishakapattanam produces the ship of maximum size of 1,00,000 DWT (Dead weight Tonnage) and Kochi produces the ship of maximum size of 50,000 DWT.

5.Seventeen dry docks are also engaged in the repairs of ships in the country.


Question-22

How does industrial pollution degrade environment?

Solution:
Industries have increased pollution and degraded environment. Industries create four types of pollution mainly air, water, land and noise. The smoke emitted by the industry pollutes the air and water very badly. Air pollution is caused by the presence of a higher proportion of undesirable gases such as carbon monoxide and sulphur oxide.
Source of water pollution are numerous. Most important are the industrial effluent that discharge into rivers. They are both organic and inorganic. They pollute the water. Unwanted loud noise is also pollution. It arises from industries and other means of transport. Noise causes impairment of hearing.




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