Mineral Based Industries
Iron and Steel Industry :-
This industry is the basic industry since all the other industries depend on it for their machinery.
Iron and Steal Industry
This industry used heavy and bulky raw materials like iron ore, coking coal, limestone and manganese. Finished product is also bulky and heavy.
Due to this, all the iron and steel industries are located in the regions where raw material is available in abundance and the transportation network is good for supplying the product to the market.
India ranks ninth in the world in steel production with 32.8 million tons anually but the per capita consumption is only 32kgs per annum.
At present, there are 10 large scale integrated steel plants and many mini steel plants in our country.
Iron and Steal Plants
All the large scale steel plants are in the public sector and market their products through SAIL (Steel Authority of India Ltd.)lexcept for TISCO
Most of the steel plants are concentrated in the Chotanagpur plateau due to the following reasons:-
Availablity of all the raw materials. (iron ore, coal, limestone, manganese)
- Low cost of iron ore.
- Cheap labour as this region is thickly populated.
- Good market in the nearby regions.
Problems faced by Iron and Steel industry.
High costs and limited availability of coking coal.
- Inefficient labour.
- Erratic supply of energy.
- Poor infrastructure.
Aluminium SmeltingAluminium smelting is the second important metallurgical industry of India after Iron and Steel industry.
Advantages of Aluminium :-
- Light weight
- Non corrosive
- Good conductor of heat and electricity
- Strong when mixed with other metals.
Due to these advantages it is used in many industries as substitutes to many metals.
There are 8 aluminium plants in India producing over 600 million tonnes.
Various Stages in Aluminium Smelting
The Indian chemical industry occupies an important position in the country's economy.
It is the third largest in Asia and 12th largest in the world in terms of its size.
This industry produces inorganic chemicals such as sulphuric acid, synthetic fibres, plastics, adhesives, paints, nitric acid, alkalies, soda ash, and caustic soda.
Some of the organic chemicals produced by this industry are petrochemicals and pharmaceuticals.
These products are used again by chemical industries whose finished products are used for industrial application.
This industry contributes 14 per cent of the production of entire manufacturing sector and its share in exports also 14 per cent.
The Indian fertiliser industry is involved in the production of Nitrogenous and Phosphatic fertilisers.
The variety of fertiliser which is the pottasic fertilizers are not produced here due to scarcity of potash for production. Hence the entire potassic fertilizer stock used in the country is imported.
The green revolution has led to the development of this industry in several states of India.
Some of the significant producers are Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Kerala.
This industry plays an important role in the development of infrastructural facilities like factories, roads, bridges, dams etc.
This industry is a heavy industry as heavy raw materials like Limestone, sillica, alumina and gypsum are used.
The other essential needs of this industry are coal, electric power and good network of rail transport.
The first cement plant was sut up in the year 1904 at Chennai.
This industry developed a lot after our country's independence. Now there are 128 large plants and 332 mini plants in the country.
Our cement is of great demand in the countries of East Asia, Middle East, Africa and South Asia due to is quality.