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What is manufacturing?

Production of goods in large quantities after processing from raw materials to more valuable products, is called manufacturing.


Name any three physical factors that affect location of the industry.

The three factors are
a. Availability of raw materials.
b. Power resources
c. Favourable climate.


Name three human inputs that control location of industries.

Human inputs that control location of industries is:
1. Labour,
2. Market and
3. Transport facilities.


Name the important raw materials used in the manufacturing of cement?

Limestone, silica, alumina and gypsum are the important raw materials used in the manufacturing of cement.


How do industries pollute the environment?

Industries have increased pollution and degraded environment. Industries create four types of pollution mainly air, water, land and noise.

The smoke emitted by the industry pollutes the air and water immensely. Air pollution is caused by the presence of a higher proportion of undesirable gases such as carbon monoxide and sulphur oxide.

Source of water pollution are numerous. Most important are the industrial effluent that discharge into rivers. They are both organic and inorganic. They pollute the water. Unwanted loud noise is also pollution. It arises from industries and the different means of transport. Noise causes impairment to hearing.


Discuss the steps to be taken to minimize environmental degradation by industry?

Minimizing the use of water for processing by reusing and recycling it, is done in two or more successive stages.

(i) Harvesting of rainwater to meet water requirements.

(ii) Treating hot water and effluents before releasing them into rivers and ponds.

Treatment of industrial effluents can be done in three phases:

(a) Primary treatment by mechanical means.

This involves screening, grinding, flocculation and sedimentation.

(b) Secondary treatment by biological process.

(c) Tertiary treatment by biological, chemical and physical processes. This involves recycling of waste water.

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