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What are amphoteric oxides? Give two examples of amphoteric oxides.

Amphoteric oxides are the oxides, which react with both acids and bases to form salt and water. E.g. ZnO and Al2O3.


Name two metals, which will displace hydrogen from dilute acids, and two metals which will not.

Very reactive metals like Zn and Mg displace hydrogen from dilute acids. On the other hand less reactive metals like Cu, Ag, etc. do not displace hydrogen from dilute acids.


In the electrolytic refining of a metal M, what would you take as the anode, the cathode and the electrolyte?

Anode is impure, thick block of metal M.

Cathode is a thin strip/wire of pure metal M.

Electrolyte is a suitable salt solution of metal M.


State two ways to prevent the rusting of iron.

By coating the surface of iron by rust proof paints.

By applying oil or grease to the surface of iron objects so that supply of air consisting of moisture is cut off form the surface.


What types of oxides are formed when non-metals combine with oxygen?

When non-metals combine with oxygen it forms either neutral or acidic oxides. CO is a neutral oxide; N2O5 or N2O3 is an acidic oxide.


Give reason
i. Metals replace hydrogen from dilute acids, where as non-metals do not.
Carbonate and sulphide ores are usually converted into oxides during the process of extraction.

i. Metals are electropositive in nature. They readily lose electrons. These electrons reduce the protons liberated from the acid to liberate hydrogen gas, where as non-metals possess a tendency to gain electrons and hence they do not furnish electrons to protons liberated from acids. Hence H2 gas is not liberated.

ii. As it is easier to reduce metal oxides to metal, prior to reduction, metal sulphides and carbonates must be converted to oxides.


Differentiate between metals and non-metals on the basis of their chemical properties.





Metals on heating with oxygen form ionic oxides, which are basic in nature and which dissolve in water to form bases, which turn red litmus blue.

Non-metals on heating with oxygen form covalent oxides which are acidic in nature and dissolve in water to form acids, which turn blue litmus red.


Non-lustrous except graphite

Conductor of electricity and heat

Non-conductor of heat and electricity, except graphite

All are solid except mercury


Electro positive. Loses electrons readily and becomes a positive ion

Electro negative: gain electrons and become negative ions.

Metals are reducing agents

Non-metals are good oxidizing agents



Explain why the surface of some metals acquires a dull appearance when exposed to air for a long time.

This is due to the surface oxidation of metals when exposed to moist air. For e.g. copper turns green on its surface due to the formation of basic copper carbonate Cu(OH) 2. CuCO3. Similarly silver becomes black due to the formation of black Ag2S and Aluminium forms a white coating of Al2O3 on its surface.


State which of the following metals would give hydrogen when added to dilute hydrochloric acid. i. Iron, ii. Copper iii. Magnesium

Iron and magnesium react with dilute hydrochloric acid to give H2. Magnesium reacts more readily than iron with dilute hydrochloric acid to liberate hydrogen.

Fe + 2HCl FeCl2 + H2

Mg + 2HCl MgCl2 + H2

Cu + HCl No reaction

Copper does not react with dilute hydrochloric acid at all. This shows that copper is even less reactive than iron.


Name a non-metallic element, which conducts electricity.

Carbon in the form of graphite conducts electricity, as there is a free electron in each carbon atom, which moves freely in between the hexagonal layers.


Which metals do not corrode easily?

Gold and platinum and other noble metals do not corrode in air.


What are alloys?

Alloys are homogeneous mixtures of two or more metals, or a metal and a non-metal.E.g. steel, brass, bronze, etc.


Define the following terms.
(i) Minerals
(ii) Ores
(iii) Gangue

(i) Minerals
All compounds or elements, which occur naturally in the earth's crust, are called minerals. Example: Alums, K2SO4.Al2(SO4)3 . 24 H2O, Bauxite Al2O3.2H2O

(ii) Ores
Those minerals from which a metal can be profitably extracted are called ores. Bauxite (Al2O3.2H2O) is the ore of Al, copper pyrite CuFeS2. All minerals are not ores but all ores are minerals.

(iii) Gangue
When an ore is mined from the earth, it is always found to be contaminated with sand rocky materials. The impurity of sand and rock materials present in the ore is known as gangue.


Name two metals that are found in nature in the free state.

Gold and platinum are found in the free state in nature.


What is chemical process used for obtaining a metal from its oxide?

The moderately reactive metals such as iron, zinc and copper, etc. in the form of their oxides are reduced to the respective metals by heating with carbon (coke) which is know as carbon reduction method.

ZnO + C Zn + CO

PbO + C Pb + CO


Name two metals, which can form hydrides with metals.

Sodium and calcium form stable hydrides on reacting with hydrogen.


Does every mineral have a definite and a fixed composition? Explain.

Yes, every mineral has a definite and a fixed composition. Minerals are widely distributed in the earth’s crust in the form of oxides, carbonates, sulphides, sulphates, nitrates, etc. These minerals are formed as a result of chemical changes taking place during the formation of earth.


Explain the meaning of malleable and ductile.

Malleable is being able to be beaten/hammered into thin sheets.

Ductile is being able to be drawn into thin wires.


 i. Write the electron dot structures for sodium, oxygen and magnesium.
ii. Show the formation of MgO and Na2O by the transfer of electrons.
iii. What are the ions present in these compounds?


i. Sodium: Na



ii. Formation of Magnesium oxide
When magnesium reacts with oxygen, the magnesium atom transfers its two outermost electrons to an oxygen atom. By losing 2 electrons, the magnesium atoms form a magnesium ion (Mg2+) and by gaining 2 electrons, the oxygen atom forms an oxide ion (O2-).

Formation of Sodium oxide
Two sodium atoms transfer their 2 outermost electrons to an oxygen atom. By losing two electrons, the two sodium atoms form two sodium ions (2Na+). And by gaining two electrons, the oxygen atom forms an oxide ion (O2-.)

iii. The ions present in sodium oxide compound (Na2O) are sodium ions (2Na+) and oxide ions (O2-).

The ions present in Magnesium oxide compound (MgO) are magnesium ions Mg2+ and oxide ions (O2-).


You must have seen tarnished copper vessels being cleaned with lemon or tamarind juice. Explain why these sour substances are effective in cleaning the vessels.

The sour substances such as lemon (or tamarind juice) contain acids. These acids dissolve the coating of copper oxide or basic copper carbonate present on the surface of tarnished copper vessels and make them shining red-brown again.


Give an example of a metal which-

i. is a liquid at room temperature.
ii. can be easily cut with a knife.
iii. is the best conductor of heat.
iv. is a poor conductor of heat.

i. Mercury is in liquid state at room temperature.

ii. Sodium and potassium are soft metals which can be easily cut with a knife.

iii. Silver is the best conductor of electricity.

iv. Mercury is a poor conductor of heat.


Why is sodium kept immersed in kerosene?

Sodium metal is kept immersed in kerosene to prevent their reaction with oxygen, moisture and carbon dioxide of air.


Why do ionic compounds have high melting points?

These compounds are made up of positive and negative ions. There is a strong force of attraction between the oppositively charged ions, so a lot of heat energy is required to break this force of attraction and melt the ionic compounds. This is why ionic compounds have high melting points.


A man went door to door posing as a goldsmith. He promised to bring back the glitter of old and dull gold ornaments. An unsuspecting lady gave a set of gold bangles to him which he dipped in a particular solution. The bangles sparkled like new but their weight was reduced drastically. The lady was upset but after a futile argument the man beat a hasty retreat. Can you play the detective to find out the nature of the solution he had used?

Aqua regia (By volume, this contains 3 parts of concentrated hydrochloric acid and 1 part of concentrated nitric acid) is the solution, which is used to sparkle the bangles like new, but their weight will be reduced drastically.


Write equations for the reactions of
(i) iron with water

(ii) calcium and potassium with water

(i) Iron reacts with steam to form magnetic oxide of Fe with the liberation of H2.

3Fe(s) + 4 H2O(g) Fe3O4(s) + 4H2(g)

(ii) Calcium reacts with water to form calcium hydroxide and hydrogen.

Ca(s) + 2H2O(l) Ca(OH)2(aq) + H2(g)

Potassium reacts with cold water violently immediately with evolution of H2 which catches fire.

2K(s) + 2H2O(l) 2KOH(aq) + 2H2(g)


What would you observe when zinc is added to a sodium of iron(II) sulphate? Write the chemical reaction that takes place?

Zinc is more reactive (more electro positive) than iron. Therefore it displaces iron from its salt solution. The colour of ferrous sulphate is pale green which becomes colourless.

FeSO4 + Zn ZnSO4 + Fe(s)
Light green          Zinc sulphate


Pratyush took sulphur powder on a spatula and heated it. He collected the gas evolved by inverting a test-tube over the burning sulphur.
What will be the action of this gas on:
Dry litmus paper?
Moist litmus paper?
Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction taking place.

a) When sulphur is brunt in air then sulphur dioxide gas is formed.

(i) Sulphur dioxide gas has no action on dry litmus paper.

(ii) Sulphur dioxide gas turns moist blue litmus paper to red.

b) S(s) + O2(g) SO2(g)

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