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Conventional Sources of Energy Coal

Coal :-

It is the most abundantly available and used fossil fuel in India.

The major uses of coal in India is for generation of power, supply energy in the industries and other domestic uses.

The quality of the coal is determined by the carbon content in it.

Factors affecting the quality of coal

  • Degree of compression.

More the coal is compressed better the quality is.

  • Depth at which it is buried

Deeper the deposits better the quality is.

  • Time of burial

Older the burial better the quality is.

Due to these factors coal is found in a variety of forms. The various forms are:-


This is the highest quality hard coal. It has more than 90% carbon content in it.


This is the most popular and commonly found coal in India.it consists of 60-80% of carbon in it.This coal is used for smelting iron.


This coal is also called as brown coal. This consists of 40-60% of carbon content. The main use of this coal is to generate electricity.


Peat is a poor variety coal with less than 40% of carbon content in it. It consists of a lot of moisture. It gives out more smoke than energy.

There are two types of coal deposits in our country namely Gondwana deposits (200 million years old) and tertiary deposits (55 million years old).


  • Gondwana coal
  • Damodar valley in West Bengal and Jharkhand. Major mines here are Jharia, Raniganj and Bokaro
  • Godavari, Mahanadi, Son and Wardha valleys.


Tertiary coal

This type of coal is found in the states of Meghalya, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland.

Most of the industries whose major raw material is coal are located nearer to coal mines as this is a weight losing raw material.


petroleum is also called Mineral oil. It is found in the sedimentary rocks in the anticlines and fault traps.


  • Mumbai High is an off shore oil field located 160kms away from the coast of Mumbai in the Arabian Sea. It accounts for about 63% of the total petroleum production of our country.

Mumbai high

  • Gujarat contributes to 18% of the total production. Ankleshwar is the major oil field in this state.
  • Assam, which is the oldest oil producing state contributes to 16% of the total oil production of our country. The major oil fields here are Digboi,Naharkatiya an Morah-Hugrijan

Natural Gas

This is another important energy resource which causes very less pollution. It is in association with petroleum sometimes. It also acts as an raw material in petrochemical industry.


  • Power generations in the thermal power plants
  • Producing fertilizers
  • LPG is used as domestic fuel
  • CNG is used a fuel for vehicles


  • Krishna-Godavari basin
  • Mumbai High and other fields in the Gulf of Cambay
  • Andaman and Nicobar islands


Per capita consumption of electricity is considered as an index of development.

The per capita consumption of electricity in India is 379 kwh (one of the lowest in the world)

Hydro elcetricity - Generated by using the force of running or falling water which is a renewable source.

Hydro electricity is generated by a number of multi purpose projects like the Bakhra Nangal, Hirakud, Damodar valley, Nagarjun sagar ect.

Thermal electricity

This type of electricity is obtained by burning coal, petroleum and natural gas.the sources of thermal electricity are non-renewable. There are more than 310 thermal power plants.

Thermal Power Plant

India- Nuclear and Thermal Power Plants

Nuclear or Atomic energy

When the of an splits into smaller parts, a large amount of energy is released which is used to generate electricity.

Nuclear reactor


Uranium and Thorium are the minerals used to generate this type of electricity.

Distribution of Nuclear minerals

  • Jaduguda mines in Jharkhand
  • Aravalli hills in Rajasthan
  • Monazite is found in the sands of Kerala

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