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Question-1

Give three examples of metallic and three examples of non-metallic minerals.

Solution:
Metallic minerals are- Iron- ore, Copper, Manganese, Nickel.
Non – Metallic Minerals – Limestone, Dolomite, Mica.

Question-2

Name four important iron ore-producing states of India.

Solution:
The four iron-ore producing states are:

1. Chattisgarh.

2. Jharkhand.

3. Orissa.

4. Karnataka.


Question-3

Name four manganese ore-producing states of India.

Solution:
The four manganese producing states are (I) Karnataka,(2) Orissa, (3) Madhya Pradesh, (4) Maharashtra.

Question-4

Name four bauxite-producing states.

Solution:
The Bauxite producing state are:(1)Jharkhand, (2) Orissa, (3) Gujarat, (4)Maharashtra.

Question-5

Name three states which are known for the production of mica.

Solution:
Mica producing states are: (1) Jharkhand, (2) Bihar, (3)Andhra- Pradesh.

Question-6

What are commercial sources of energy?

Solution:
The commercial sources of energy are: Coal, Petroleum, Natural gas, Hydro –electricity and Nuclear energy.

Question-7

What are conventional sources of energy?

Solution:
The conventional sources of energy are Coal, Petroleum, Natural gas and Electricity.

Question-8

Name six non-commercial sources of energy.

Solution:
Non- commercial source of energy are fire wood, charcoal, cowdung and agricultural wastes, wood coal and babool wood.

Question-9

Name three most important coal producing states of India.

Solution:
Three important coalproducing states are (1) Jharkhand, (2) Orissa and (3) West Bengal.

Question-10

Mention three areas where petroleum is found in India.

Solution:
Gujarat, Mumbai High and Assam are three areas of petroleum.

Question-11

Distinguish Between Metallic and Non-metallic minerals

Solution:

Metallic Minerals

Non- Metallic Minerals

1. They can be melted to obtain new products.

1. They do not yield new products on melting.

2. They are usually hard and have shines or luster of their own.

2. They are not so hard and have no shine or luster of their own.

3. They are ductile and malleable.

3. They are not ductile and malleable.

4. They are generally associated with igenous rocks.

4. They are generally associated with sedimentary rocks.

5. When hit, they do not get broken.

5. When hit, they may get broken into pieces.

6. Example: Copper, iron, aluminimum, tin, silver, gold, manganese, etc.

6. Example: Sulphur, coal, mica, petroleum, salt, clay, marble etc.

 

Question-12

Distinguish Between Commercial and Non-Commercial Energy

Solution:

Commercial Energy

Non- Commercial Energy

1. The sources of energy which are used by the people for commercial purposes.

1. The sources of energy which are used by the people for home consumption.

2. The use of commercial source of energy can be used as an indicator of economic development of the country.

2. The use of non-commercial source of energy can be used an indicator of living standard of the country.

3. Coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydro-electricity are the major commercial sources of energy.

3. Fire wood, charcoal, cow-dung and agriculture waste are the major non-commercial sources of energy.

 

Question-13

Distinguish between Conventional and Non-Conventional Sources of Energy.

Solution:

Conventional Sources of Energy

Non-Conventional Sources of Energy

1. Conventional source of energy have been used since the early times.

1. Non- conventional source of energy have came into the use only recently.

2. Coal, Petroleum, natural gas, hydro-electricity, thermal power are the source of energy.

2. Wind energy, solar energy, tidal energy, geothermal, biogas are example of these source of energy.

3. All conventional sources of energy except hydro-electricity are exhaustible.

3. Most of the non- conventional sources of energy are inexhaustible.

4. These source cause environmental pollution.

4. These sources do not cause environmental pollution.

5.These source require huge capital.

5. Small amount of money is sufficient to have these sources.

 

Question-14

Distinguish between Anthracite and Bituminous Coal

Solution:
Anthracite and Bituminous Coal

Anthracite

Bituminous Coal

1. This is the best quality of coal.

1. It is the second in quality.

2. It contains 90 to 95% if carbon content in it.

2. It contains 60 to 80% carbon in it.

3. It is generally formed when the beds of coal are subject to extreme pressure and heat to the earth movements.

3. It is widely used.

 

Question-15

Distinguish between Natural Gas and BioGas

Solution:

Natural Gas

BioGas

1. It is used as source of power in the urban areas.

1. It is used mostly in rural areas.

2. It is also used as raw materials in petro chemcial industries.

2. It is not used as raw material.

3. It takes less time in establishing a power plant.

3. It is derived from farm shrubs, farm wastes animal and human wastes.

4. Fertilizers are also produced by natural gas.

4. Decomposition of organic matter yields gas which has higher thermal efficiency in comparison to kerosene, charcoal etc.

5. Its transportation is very easy. It is transported through pipeline.

5. Biogas plants are set up on Municipal, cooperative and individual basis.

 

Question-16

Describe the distribution of iron ore in India.

Solution:
Iron –ore is the backbone of modern cultivation. It is used for manufacturing machines and tools. India has about 20% of the world reserves of iron ore. Most of the iron-ore mined in the country came from Chhatisgarh, Jharkhand, Orissa, Goa and Karnataka. Some well known iron-ore mines are in Durg and Dantiwar- a district of Chattisgarh, Singhbhum district of Jharkhand and Sundargarh, Keonjhar and Mayurbhanj district of Orissa, North Goa, Chikmagalaur and Bellary district of Karnataka.

Question-17

Describe the distribution of coal in India.

Solution:
In Jharkhand, the largest producer where Jharia, Bokaro, karampur , Palamu are the major coal fields.

In West Bengal , Raniganj, Jalpaiguri and Darjeeling are the coal fields.

In Chhatisgarh , Sarguja, Bilaspur, Raigarh and Bastar districts are coal fields.

M.P. has coal fields in Chhindwara district.

In Maharashtra – Chanda is the main coalfield.


Question-18

Why do you think that solar energy has a bright future in India?

Solution:
It is true that solar energy has bright future in India because

a. India is blessed with plenty of solar energy because most part of the country receive bright monsoonsunshine.

b. India has developed technology to use solar energy for cooking, water heating, space heating, crop drying etc.

c. It is most abundant, inexhaustible and universal source of energy.

d. India is tropical country.

e. It is pollution free.


Question-19

What is Anthracite?

Solution:
Anthracite is the highest quality of hard coal.

Question-20

List four non-conventional energy resources.

Solution:
Solar energy, wind power, biogas and geo-thermal energy are non-conventional energy resources.

Question-21

Suggest two ways of conserving minerals.

Solution:
Recycling of metals and discovering new substitutes for metals are ways of conserving minerals.

Question-22

Name two non- metallic minerals.

Solution:
Mica and marble are non- metallic minerals.

Question-23

Distinguish Between Metallic and Non-metallic minerals

Solution:

Metallic Minerals

Non- Metallic Minerals

1. They can be melted to obtain new products.

1. They do not yield new products on melting.

2. They are usually hard and have shines or luster of their own.

2. They are not so hard and have no shine or luster of their own.

3. They are ductile and malleable.

3. They are not ductile and malleable.

4. They are generally associated with igenous rocks.

4. They are generally associated with sedimentary rocks.

5. When hit, they do not get broken.

5. When hit, they may get broken into pieces.

6. Example: Copper, iron, aluminimum, tin, silver, gold, manganese, etc.

6. Example: Sulphur, coal, mica, petroleum, salt, clay, marble etc.

 

Question-24

What is commercial and non-commercial energy

Solution:
Commercial Energy
The sources of energy which are used by the people for commercial purposes. The use of commercial source of energy can be used as an indicator of economic development of the country. Coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydro-electricity are the major commercial sources of energy.


Non- Commercial Energy
The sources of energy which are used by the people for home consumption. The use of non-commercial source of energy can be used an indicator of living standard of the country. Fire wood, charcoal, cow-dung and agriculture waste are the major non-commercial sources of energy.


Question-25

Write a brief note on conventional and non-conventional sources of energy.

Solution:
Conventional Sources of Energy
Conventional source of energy have been used since the early times. Coal, Petroleum, natural gas, hydro-electricity, thermal power are the source of energy. All conventional sources of energy except hydro-electricity are exhaustible. These source cause environmental pollution. These source require huge capital.


Non-Conventional Sources of Energy
Non- conventional source of energy have came into the use only recently. Wind energy, solar energy, tidal energy, geothermal, biogas are example of these source of energy. Most of the non- conventional sources of energy are inexhaustible. These sources do not cause environmental pollution. Small amount of money is sufficient to have these sources.


Question-26

Distinguish between natural gas and bio-gas.

Solution:

Natural Gas

BioGas

1. It is used as source of power in the urban areas.

1. It is used mostly in rural areas.

2. It is also used as raw materials in petro chemcial industries.

2. It is not used as raw material.

3. It takes less time in establishing a power plant.

3. It is derived from farm shrubs, farm wastes animal and human wastes.

4. Fertilizers are also produced by natural gas.

4. Decomposition of organic matter yields gas which has higher thermal efficiency in comparison to kerosene, charcoal etc.

5. Its transportation is very easy. It is transported through pipeline.

5. Biogas plants are set up on Municipal, cooperative and individual basis.

 





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