The Sense of Collective Belonging
The Indian nationalism witnesses a development in phases.
In the first phase ever since the evolution of Indian national congress, a moderate movement with the will to co-operate for the grant of a better living atmosphere prevailed. They believed in the gradual realization of their national goals.
In the second phase, owing to the repression of the moderate policy of the congress, rise of extremism resulted. Steered by a young and vigorous mind they resorted to reaction and conflict for achieving their goals. Boycott, resistances and demonstrations were their political weapons.
Gandhiji Picking up a Few Grains of Salt
The third phase of the Indian national movement was dominated by the Gandhian ideology: non-violence, non co-operation and civil disobedience movement. All these, were revoked and modified and reapplied, ultimately resulting in freedom in 1947.
Aspirations to remain as an independent entity had always remained scattered till the second half of the 19th century. These could always be subdued owing to the lack of an organized effort against the well-organized masters. The real organized effort to achieve the political, social and economic liberty was felt only after the formation of the Indian National Congress. The first reason for evolving a feeling of nationalism was the political unification of India. Before the advent of the British the subcontinent presented a collage of selfish kingdoms under rival chiefs and rulers.