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Question-1

Gives reasons why a democratic government is preferred to other forms of governments.

Solution:
Democracy promotes equality among its citizens. It enhances the dignity of the individual and people are free to make decisions. In a democracy conflicts are solved amicably and there is room to correct mistakes. These are the reasons why a democracy is preferred to other forms of governments.

Question-2

What are the main features of a democracy?

Solution:
Democracies have a formal constitution; they hold elections, have political parties and guarantee rights to its citizens.

Question-3

What is the basis of democracy and what are its advantages?

Solution:
Democracy is based on the idea of deliberation and negotiation. Deliberation and negotiation have an advantage as they ensure that the decisions taken are acceptable to all the people.

Question-4

Mention a few factors that determine the economic growth of a country.

Solution:
The factors that determine the economic growth of a country are…

(i) Population

(ii) Size

(iii) Natural resources

(iv) Relationship with other countries

(v) Global situation

(vi) Geographic position

(vii) Economic policies of the government.


Question-5

What are the challenges faced by democratic governments?

Solution:
Democratic governments face the challenge of expansion. The basic principle of a democratic government has to be established across all the regions, different social groups and various institutions. Greater power should be delegated to local governments. Federal principles have to be extended to all the units of the federation. Women and minority groups should be included in decision making. Strengthening of the institutions and practices of democracy should happen so that people can realise their expectations of democracy.
 
Different societies have different expectations from different democracies.So, each country has to deal in a unique way to face the challenge, people in that particular country face. If this is to be done peoples’ participation is necessary and the control and influence of the rich and powerful people have to be toned down.

Question-6

Write a brief note on freedom and dignity to citizens in democratic and non- democratic countries.

Solution:
The dignity and freedom of the individual is well preserved in a democracy. It is natural that every individual wants to receive respect from fellow beings. Often conflicts arise among individuals because some feel that they are not treated with due respect.

In non-democratic countries people do not enjoy freedom as they have always been dominated. They have been treated as sub-ordinates.

In democratic and non-democratic countries we find that men dominated the society. Women had to struggle for equal treatment in society. In India we find that female feticide is still prevalent in villages.

In modern democracies the laws have ensured that women are treated equally in society. In a non-democratic set up, this is not possible as the principle of individual freedom and dignity is not a legal or moral force.

In India caste inequalities is another problem that the fibre of democracy faces. Atrocities and discriminations against certain castes still continue in India. The Indian government is taking all steps the set this right. This is possible in a democratic set up, as the laws of the country are against inequality of caste. Many reservation policies are in force in India, to uplift the people of the lower castes.

A democracy transforms people from the status of a subject into that of a citizen.


Question-7

The prime duty of any democratic government is to reduction inequality in wealth among its citizens and eliminate poverty. Discuss.

Solution:
The development strategies of a democracy should always work towards the goal of reducing the gap between the rich and the poor.

Economic growth should ensure that wealth is distributed in such a way that all citizens of the country will have a share and lead a better life.

In a democracy it is possible to provide equal opportunity to all the citizens to prosper because democracies are based on political equality as all individuals have equal right in electing their representatives.

In practise we find that democracies have not been able to bridge the gap between the rich and the poor. In most democracies a small number of rich enjoy a highly disproportionate share of wealth while the poor find it difficult to meet the basic needs of life, such as food, clothing, house, education and health.

It is the duty of a democratic country to lift the poor from the clutches of poverty, for all citizens have equal rights in a democracy. Programmes, for the upliftment of the poor are necessary. Free education, free health care is very necessary in poor democracies. India is implementing many schemes for the upliftment of the poor. The gap between the poor and the rich is slowly becoming narrower in India.


Question-8

A democratic government has to be accountable, responsive and legitimate government. Discuss.

Solution:
Democracy is based on the idea of deliberation and negotiation. They ensure that the decisions taken are acceptable to all the people.

Democracies are accountable to its citizens. That is, all decision making has to be transparent. This factor is missing from a non-democratic government. In a democracy, citizens also take part in decision making.

Democracies are responsible for the decisions they make. If a wrong decision is made, it is the duty of the government to rectify it. In a non-democratic government, decisions are taken by a single person and the question of rectification does not arise, even if it is a wrong decision.

Deliberation and negotiation cause delay. So in a democracy there is a possibility of delay when some major decisions have to be taken. This delay may be costly. The cost of time that democracy pays is perhaps worth it as the decision will be acceptable to all.

Democracies follow a constitution, so they are legitimate. The laws of the country are applicable to everyone, even to the government members. Free and fair elections are held in democracies and the people have the power to eliminate parties they are not happy with, in the next election. In a non-democratic government this is not possible as elections are not held.

Democracies have to be responsive. The government should function in a transparent manner and the common man should be able to approach the government to address his grievances.


Question-9

What are the main features of a democracy?

Solution:
Democracies have a formal constitution; they hold elections, have political parties and guarantee rights to its citizens.

Question-10

What is the basis of democracy and what are its advantages?

Solution:
Democracy is based on the idea of deliberation and negotiation. Deliberation and negotiation have an advantage as they ensure that the decisions taken are acceptable to all the people.

Question-11

Does dictatorship always lead to higher economic growth?

Solution:
Dictatorship has not produced higher economic growth in developing countries.

Question-12

Mention to factors that we have to look for while evaluating democracy in a system?

Solution:
The 2 factors that we should look for are , are the elections fair and regular and are the citizens involved in the decisions the government takes.

Question-13

Compare democracies and non-democratic countries on the basis of economic growth.

Solution:
On an average dictatorial regimes have a slightly higher economic growth rate. Poor democracies and non-democratic countries have the same economic growth rate.

When we consider the economic growth, only in democracies, we find a terrible imbalance among the citizens.

South Africa and Brazil – the difference between the rich and the poor is enormous  

Denmark and Hungary – the economic standard is more balanced.


Question-14

Write a brief note on the status of women in democratic and non-democratic countries.

Solution:
In democratic and non-democratic countries we find that men dominated the society. Women had to struggle for equal treatment in society. In India we find that female feticide is still prevalent in villages.

In modern democracies the laws have ensured that women are treated equally in society. In a non-democratic set up, this is not possible as the principle of individual freedom and dignity is not a legal or moral force.

Question-15

What should the government do to lift the poor from the clutches of poverty?

Solution:
It is the duty of a democratic country to lift the poor from the clutches of poverty, for all citizens have equal rights in a democracy. Programmes, for the upliftment of the poor are necessary. Free education, free health care is very necessary in poor democracies. India is implementing many schemes for the upliftment of the poor. The gap between the poor and the rich is slowly becoming narrower in India.




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