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How does democracy produce an accountable, responsive and legitimate government?
Democracy produces an accountable government because it provides regular, free and fair elections regularly. Open discussions are held on all major issues and legislations.

Democracy gives its citizens the right to information about the government and its functioning.

Democracy provides a responsive government as it is formed by elected representatives of the people. These representatives discuss the problems of the society and make policies and programmes accordingly. The representatives also ensure that the programmes are implemented.

Democracies follow a constitution, so they are legitimate. The laws of the country are applicable to everyone, even to the government members. Free and fair elections are held in democracies and the people have the power to eliminate parties they are not happy with, in the next election.


What are the conditions under which democracies accommodate social diversities?

Democracies have a responsibility of creating a society that is safe and harmonious for its citizen. Differences among ethnic populations should be sorted out amicably in democracies. They should develop a procedure that would reduce tension in times of trouble.

A society without conflict is not possible because it is made up of a people from different walks of life and different backgrounds. Difference of opinion is bound to arise and it is the responsibility of the government to settle it amicably and without hardship to anyone.

Democracies should ensure that,

(i) Different persons or groups are elected and form a government.
(ii) A majority community in terms of religion or race or linguistic group should not come to power.

(iii) Citizen should have a chance of being in the majority.

(iv) No one should be barred on the basis of birth from being in the majority for then democratic

rule ceases to be accommodative for that person or group.

Democracy is simply not the rule of the majority. Majority has to work hand in hand with the minority s the government is represented by all sections of the people.


d) In democracy all citizens have one vote, which means that there is absence of any domination and conflict.


a) History reveals that poor countries achieved better economic growth under dictatorship rather than in a democracy. Though this may be true, the positive aspects of democracy, like freedom of expression, dignity and independence cannot be sacrificed for economic growth alone.

b) It is true that Democracy can’t reduce inequality of incomes between different citizens. But inequality of incomes may be due to various social and economic conditions and democracy as a form of government cannot be held responsible for the inequality of income.

c) Poor countries have to spend more on poverty reduction, health, education as the best resource for a country is ‘human resource’. A healthier, happier and educated society will automatically bring prosperity to a nation.

d) It is true that in a democracy all citizens have one vote and all votes are of equal value. In some democracies we do find certain groups dominating others and conflicts do arise. The constitution, democracies follow, resolves these conflicts through negotiation.


C) Following allegation of killing of three civilians in Gandwara in a fake encounter by Jammu and Kashmir police, an enquiry has been ordered.

a) In this case people were discriminated on the basis of their caste. In a democracy all citizen are equal irrespective of their caste, creed, religion or economic status.
So the democratic government had to take up the challenge of unfair discrimination against the dalits and pass a law to set things right.

b) In this case the government has failed to implement poverty reduction programmes and the welfare of the down- trodden has been neglected. It was poverty and the inability to repay the loans incurred that made the farmers resorted to this desperate act of suicide. The challenge faced by the government is to strengthen local administrations and ensure that the programmes started for the poor are implemented properly and that corruption and neglect does not cause hardship to the citizen.

c) This situation reveals that the government has failed to provide security for all its citizens. In a democracy the government is answerable to its citizens as it is a representative form of government .The challenge the government now faces is to bring justice to the common man. The faith of the people should be restored and the guilty even if they are part of the government should be punished.


In the context of democracies, which of the following ideas is correct – democracies have successfully eliminated
A. conflicts among people
B. economic inequalities among people
C. differences of opinion about how marginalised sections are to be treated
D. the idea of political inequality.


C. differences of opinion about how marginalised sections are to be treated.


In the context of assessing democracy which among the following is odd one out. Democracies need to ensure:

A. free and fair elections
B. dignity of the individual
C. majority rule
D. equal treatment before law.

C. majority rule.


Studies on political and social inequalities in democracy show that

A. democracy and development go together.
B. inequalities exist in democracies .
C. inequalities do not exist under dictatorship.
D. dictatorship is better than democracy.

B. inequalities exist in democracies.

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