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Periodic Table

In the modern periodic table there are 18 vertical rows of elements. These are numbered IA, IIA, IIIA, IVA, VA, VIA, VIIA and IB, IIB, IIIB, IVB, VB, VIB, VIIB in addition to the VIII group and the `zero' group.

Metals and Non-metals
The periodic table divides the elements into two major classes namely metals on the left and non-metals on the right side. We can see that the elements in the extreme left (groups IA, IIA) are metals and as we move to the middle of the period, we come across non-metals (group IVA).

The Alkali Metals
The elements of group IA are called alkali metals. Lithium (Li), sodium (Na) and potassium (K) are examples of alkali metals.

The Alkaline Earths
The elements of group IIA are called alkaline earths. Beryllium (Be), magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) are examples of alkaline earth elements.

The Halogens
The elements of group VIIA are called halogens. Fluorine, chlorine, bromine and iodine are examples of halogens. 

Noble Gases
The elements of the zero (0) group-are called noble or inert gases. This group is placed in the extreme right of the periodic table.

Transition Elements
All of the group B elements are called transition metals because their chemical properties are between those of elements in Group II A and those in Group III A. Elements having atomic number 58 to 71 form one group with very similar properties called lanthanide series.

Lanthanides form a group of elements with very similar properties. These are placed as a separate horizontal row in the periodic table.

Elements having atomic weight 90 to 103 form another group of elements called the actinide series. These have very similar properties therefore actinides are placed as a separate horizontal row in the periodic table.

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