Loading....
Coupon Accepted Successfully!

 

Question-1

In what ways do pressure groups and movements exert influence on politics?

Solution:
Like an interest group, a movement group also attempts to influence politics rather than directly take part in electoral competition. But unlike the interest groups, movements have a loose organisation. Their decision making is more informal and flexible.They depend much more on spontaneous mass participation than an interest group.

Question-2

Describe the forms of relationship between pressure groups and political parties?

Solution:
In most cases the relationship between parties and interest or movement groups is not so direct. They often take positions that are opposed to each other. Yet they are in dialogue and negotiation. Movement groups have raised new issues that have been taken up by political parties. Most of the new leadership of political parties comes from interest or movement groups.

Question-3

Explain how the activities of pressure groups are useful in the functioning of a democratic government.

Solution:
The pressure groups and movements have deepened democracy. Putting pressure on the rulers is not an unhealthy activity in a democracy as long as everyone gets this opportunity. Governments can often come under undue pressure from a small group of rich and powerful people. Public interest groups and movements perform a useful role of countering this undue influence and reminding the government of the needs and concerns of ordinary citizens.

Question-4

What is a pressure group? Give a few examples.

Solution:
Pressure groups are organisations that attempt to influence government policies. But unlike political parties, pressure groups do not aim to directly control or share political power. These organisations are formed when people with common occupation, interest, aspirations or opinions come together in order to achieve a common objective.

The struggle in Nepal was called a movement for democracy. We often hear the word people’s movement to describe many forms of collective action: Narmada Bachao Andolan, Movement for Right to Information, Anti-liquor Movement, Women’s Movement, Environmental Movement.


Question-5

What is the difference between a pressure group and a political party?

Solution:
Pressure groups are organisations that attempt to influence government policies. But unlike political parties, pressure groups do not aim to directly control or share political power. These organisations are formed when people with common occupation, interest, aspirations or opinions come together in order to achieve a common objective.

In some instances the pressure groups are either formed or led by the leaders of political parties or act as extended arms of political parties. For example, most trade unions and students’ organisations in India are either established by or affiliated to one or the other major political party. Most of the leaders of such pressure groups are usually activists and leaders of party. Sometimes political parties grow out of movements. For example, when the Assam movement led by students against the ‘foreigners’ came to an end, it led to the formation of the Asom Gana Parishad. The roots of parties like the DMK and the AIADMK in Tamil Nadu can be traced to a long drawn social reform movement during the 1930 and 1940s.


Question-6

Organizations that undertake activities to promote the interests of specific social sections such as workers, employees, teachers, and lawyers are called__________   groups.

Solution:
Organizations that undertake activities to promote the interests of specific social sections such as workers, employees, teachers, and lawyers are called Sectional interest groups.

Question-7

Which among the following is the special feature that distinguishes a pressure group from a political party?
(a) Parties take political stances, while pressure groups do not bother about political issues.
(b) Pressure groups are confined to a few people, while parties involve larger number of people.
(c) Pressure groups do not seek to get into power, while political parties do.
(d) Pressure groups do not seek to mobilise people, while parties

Solution:
(c) Pressure groups do not seek to get into power, while political parties do.

Question-8

What were he three demands that were made by the SPA in Nepal?

Solution:
The three demands were .................. Restoration of parliament
 
Power to an all-party government
 
A new constituent assembly

Question-9

Describe Bolivia’s water war.
Solution:
 
The World Bank pressurised the government of Bolivia, which is a poor country in Latin America, to give up its control of municipal water supply. These rights were sold for the city of Cochabamba to a multi-national company (MNC), and the cost of water was increased. There was a protest among the people since one-fourth of the income had to be paid for water.

In January 2000 a successful four-day general strike was organised in the city by a new alliance of labour, human rights and community leaders. The strike was called off when the government agreed to negotiate. In February 2000, since the government had not taken any action the people agitated again, and the police took brutal action. In April 2000, another strike followed and the government imposed martial law. The officers of the MNC were forced to flee the city and the government was made to concede to all the demands of the protesters, due the power of the people. Water supply was restored to the municipality at old rates and the contract with the MNC was cancelled. This was known as Bolivia’s water war.

Question-10

Define pressure groups.

Solution:
Government policies are influenced by a few organisations called Pressure groups. Pressure groups do not aim to control or share political power directly, unlike political parties. When people with common occupation, interest, aspirations or opinions come together in order to achieve a common objective these organisations are formed.

Question-11

Write a brief note on the Narmada Bachao Movement.

Solution:
Narmada Bachao Andolan in India was a Issue specific movement. The specific issue of this movement was the displacement of the people by the creation of Sardar Sarovar dam on the Narmada river.

Its objective was to stop the dam from being constructed. It gradually became a wider movement that questioned all such big dams and the model of development that required such dams.




Test Your Skills Now!
Take a Quiz now
Reviewer Name