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Question-1

Give a brief description of the first form of print technology.

Solution:
The first form of print technology used wooden blocks which were carved with words or designs. The carvings were in relief. These wooden blocks were inked. Then paper was rubbed against it. The markings now made an impression on the paper. The paper was thin and so printing was done only on one side. The papers were folded and stitched.

Question-2

How did the urban population use the print media?

Solution:
Merchants used print in their daily life, to update trade information. People stated reading fiction, poetry, biographies, autobiographies, and romantic plays during their leisure time. Rich women began to read, and many women began publishing their poetry and plays. Wives of scholar-officials published their works and courtesans wrote about their lives.

Question-3

When was print technology introduced in Japan?

Solution:
Print technology was introduced in Japan around AD 768-770. Buddhist missionaries from China introduced hand-printing technology into Japan .The oldest Japanese book, the Buddhist Diamond Sutra was printed in AD 868. It contained six sheets of text and woodcut illustrations

Question-4

Who was Marco Polo?

Solution:
Marco Polo was a great explorer. He was in China for many years and he learnt the printing technology from the Chinese during his years of exploration. He returned to Italy in 1295 and introduced this new technology.

Question-5

Why did the demand for hand written books diminish?

Solution:
The demand for hand-written books slowly diminished. Copying by hand was expensive, laborious and time-consuming. These hand written manuscripts were fragile, awkward to handle, and could not be carried around or read easily. Woodblock printing gradually became more and more popular as the demand for books increased.

Question-6

How did the print revolution influence the reading habit of the people of Europe?

Solution:
Due to the print revolution the reading habit of the public increased, as books were now less costly. This was because the time and labour required to produce a book came down, and multiple copies could be produced with greater ease.

Books flooded the market, and were easily available for the public. Before printed books flooded the markets the common people used to gather in Public places and books were read out to them. They heard sacred texts read out, ballads recited, and folk tales narrated.
This listening culture turned to reading culture when books became cheaper.

Question-7

Write a brief note on Martin Luther.

Solution:
Martin Luther was a religious reformer. In 1517 he wrote the ‘Ninety Five Theses’ criticising many of the practices and rituals of the Roman Catholic Church. A printed copy of this was pasted on a church door in Wittenberg. The Church was prompted to discuss his ideas.

Soon Martin Luther’s Ninety Five Theses’ was printed in vast numbers and read widely. This lead to a division within the Church and was the beginning of the Protestant Reformation.

Martin Luther’s translation of the New Testament sold 5,000 copies within a few weeks and a second edition appeared within three months.

Several scholars felt print brought about a new intellectual atmosphere and helped spread the new ideas that led to the Reformation.


Question-8

Write a short note on Indian manuscripts.

Solution:
India had a very rich and old tradition of handwritten manuscripts – in Sanskrit, Arabic, Persian, and other vernacular languages. Manuscripts were copied on palm leaves or on handmade paper. Pages were beautifully illustrated. These manuscripts were bound between wooden covers or sewn together for preservation. Manuscripts were produced in India even after print technology was introduced.


Manuscripts were expensive and fragile and had to be handled carefully. It was difficult to read manuscripts as they were written in different styles.


Question-9

Mass literacy increased many fold in the nineteenth century, in Europe. Women children and workers started reading books. Discuss.

Solution:
Primary education was compulsory in the late nineteenth century. Children became an important category of readers. The printing industry now had its hands full by printing school books. A Children’s press was set up in France in 1857 which catered solely to books for children. This press published new stories as well as old fairy tales and folk tales.
 

The Grimm Brothers in Germany compiled traditional folk tales gathered from peasants and the book was published in a collection in 1812. Rural folk tales now had a new form.
 

Women became important as readers as well as writers. Penny magazines were published exclusively for women. They contained articles on proper behaviour and housekeeping. Novels became popular as women started reading them.
 

Jane Austen, the Bronte sisters, and George Eliot were well known authors. Their writings became important in defining a new type of woman, who had will –power, strength of personality, determination and the power to think.
 

Lending libraries became popular in the seventeenth century as the literacy rate increased and many took to reading. Books became instruments for educating white-collar workers, artisans and lower-middle-class people.
 

Books themselves in a way increased literacy. Working class people wrote for themselves and used books for self education.
 

After the working day was gradually shortened from the mid-nineteenth century, workers had time for self-improvement and self-expression. They wrote political tracts and autobiographies in large numbers.

Question-10

How did the print media affect the women in India?

Solution:
Lives and feelings of women were written with intensity. This increased the number of women who took to reading. Liberal husbands and fathers started educating their womenfolk at home and some sent them to schools. Many journals began carrying writings by women, and explained why women should be educated. They also carried a syllabus and attached suitable reading matter which could be used for home-based schooling.


Superstition was a reason for illiteracy among a large population of women.

• Conservative Hindus believed that a literate girl would be widowed. 

• Muslims feared that educated women would be corrupted by reading Urdu romances.

Social reforms and novels created a great interest in women’s lives and emotions. Women’s opinions and views were slowly considered and respected. Stories were written about how about how women were imprisoned at home, kept in ignorance, forced to do hard domestic labour and treated unjustly by the very people they served. Stories about the miserable lives of upper-caste Hindu women, especially widows also appeared in print. These stories paved the way for the liberation of the suppressed Indian woman.


Other kinds of literature solely for women soon flooded the markets.

• Article on household and fashion lessons for women. 

• Articles on issues like women’s education, widowhood, widow remarriage and the national movement. 

• Short stories and serialised novels. 

• Folk literature.


In Bengal, an entire area in central Calcutta – the Battala – was devoted to the printing of popular books. These books were being profusely illustrated with woodcuts and coloured lithographs. Peddlers took the Battala publications to homes, enabling women to read them in their leisure time.


Question-11

Give a brief description of the first form of print technology.

Solution:
The first form of print technology used wooden blocks which were carved with words or designs. The carvings were in relief. These wooden blocks were inked. Then paper was rubbed against it. The markings now made an impression on the paper. The paper was thin and so printing was done only on one side. The papers were folded and stitched.

Question-12

How did the print revolution influence the reading habit of the people of Europe?

Solution:
Due to the print revolution the reading habit of the public increased, as books were now less costly. This was because the time and labour required to produce a book came down, and multiple copies could be produced with greater ease.

Books flooded the market, and were easily available for the public. Before printed books flooded the markets the common people used to gather in Public places and books were read out to them. They heard sacred texts read out, ballads recited, and folk tales narrated.

This listening culture turned to reading culture when books became cheaper.


Question-13

Write a short note on Indian manuscripts

Solution:
India had a very rich and old tradition of handwritten manuscripts – in Sanskrit, Arabic, Persian, and other vernacular languages. Manuscripts were copied on palm leaves or on handmade paper. Pages were beautifully illustrated. These manuscripts were bound between wooden covers or sewn together for preservation. Manuscripts were produced in India even after print technology was introduced.

Manuscripts were expensive and fragile and had to be handled carefully. It was difficult to read manuscripts as they were written in different styles.


Question-14

What is calligraphy?

Solution:
Calligraphy is the art of writing beautiful letters by hand.

Question-15

What medium was used for writing ancient Indian scriptures?

Solution:
Palm leaves ( Bhoj patra) was used to write ancient scriptures.

Question-16

Who invented the letter press?

Solution:
Letter Press was invented by Johann Gutenberg in Germany.

Question-17

Who brought out the first Indian newspaper published in English?

Solution:
Gangadhar Bhattacharya brought out the first English newspaper in India.

Question-18

How was sale of books promoted in small towns?

Solution:
Peddlers carried illustrated books to homes in small towns.

Question-19

Give a brief description of the first form of print technology.

Solution:
The first form of print technology used wooden blocks which were carved with words or designs. The carvings were in relief. These wooden blocks were inked. Then paper was rubbed against it. The markings now made an impression on the paper. The paper was thin and so printing was done only on one side. The papers were folded and stitched.

Question-20

How did the print revolution influence the reading habit of the people of Europe?

Solution:
Due to the print revolution the reading habit of the public increased, as books were now less costly. This was because the time and labour required to produce a book came down, and multiple copies could be produced with greater ease.

Books flooded the market, and were easily available for the public. Before printed books flooded the markets the common people used to gather in Public places and books were read out to them. They heard sacred texts read out, ballads recited, and folk tales narrated.

This listening culture turned to reading culture when books became cheaper.


Question-21

Write a short note on Indian manuscripts

Solution:
India had a very rich and old tradition of handwritten manuscripts – in Sanskrit, Arabic, Persian, and other vernacular languages. Manuscripts were copied on palm leaves or on handmade paper. Pages were beautifully illustrated. These manuscripts were bound between wooden covers or sewn together for preservation. Manuscripts were produced in India even after print technology was introduced.

Manuscripts were expensive and fragile and had to be handled carefully. It was difficult to read manuscripts as they were written in different styles.





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