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Question-1

Write a short note on classiification of resources.

Solution:
The resources can be classified in the following ways –

(a) On the basis of origin – biotic and abiotic

(b) On the basis of exhaustibility – renewable and non-renewable

(c) On the basis of ownership – individual,community, national and international

(d) On the basis of status of development – potential, developed stock and reserves.

Question-2

Give the difference between renewable resources and non-renewable resources with examples.

Solution:
The resources which can be renewed or reproduced by physical, chemical or mechanical processes are known as renewable or replenishable resources. While Non-renewable resources are resources that take millions of years in their formation.

Question-3

Give the two factors that determine soil fertility.

Solution:
1)Soil fertility depends on is composition. Sandy soil is not suitable for agriculture as they do not retain water which the plant roots need for survival. The ideal soils contain a mixture of sand and clay.


2) The humus content determines soil fertility. Organic farm yard manures improve the humus content.


Question-4

What is the classification of alluvial soil on the basis of their age ? Mention their characteristics.

Solution:
Apart from the size of their grains or components, soils are also classified on the basis of their age. According to their age, alluvial soils can be classified as old alluvial (Bangar) and new alluvial (Khadar). The bangar soil has higher concentration of kanker nodules than the Khadar. It has more fine particles and is more fertile than the bangar.

Question-5

Give a short note on reserves.

Solution:
Reserves are the subset of the stock, which can be put into use with the help of existing technical ‘know-how’ but their use has not been started. These can be used for meeting future requirements. River water can be used for generating hydroelectric power but presently, it is being utilized only to a limited extent. Thus, the water in the dams, forests etc. is a reserve which can be used in the future.

Question-6

Major problem faced due to the indiscriminate use of resources by Man- Discuss.

Solution:
Human beings used the resources indiscriminately and this has led to the following problems.

1) Depletion of resources for satisfying the greed of few individuals.

2) Accumulation of resources in few hands, which, in turn, divided the society into two, segments i.e. haves and have-nots or rich and poor.

Indiscriminate exploitation of resources has led to global ecological crises.


Question-7

Write a paragraph on resource planning.

Solution:
Resource planning is a complex process, which involves:

(i) Identification and inventory of resources across the regions of the country. This involves surveying, mapping and qualitative and quantitative estimation and measurement of the resources.

(ii) Evolving a planning structure endowed with appropriate technology, skill and institutional set up for implementing resource development plans.

(iii) Matching the resource development plans with overall national development plans.


Question-8

What was the views of Gandhiji on resource conservation?

Solution:
Gandhiji voiced his concern about resource conservation in the following words: "There is enough for everybody’s need and not for any body’s greed." He placed the greedy and selfish individuals and exploitative nature of modern technology as the root cause for resource depletion at the global level. He was against mass production and wanted to replace it with the production by the masses.

Question-9

Name the five types of land resource.

Solution:
Land resources are made up of:

1. Forests


2. Land not available for cultivation:

(a) Barren and waste land

(b) Land put to non-agricultural uses, e.g. buildings, roads, factories, etc.


3. Other uncultivated land (excluding fallow land):

(a) Permanent pastures and grazing land,

(b) Land under miscellaneous tree crops groves (not included in net sown area),

(c) Cultivable wasteland (left uncultivated for more than 5 agricultural years).


4. Fallow lands

(a) Current fallow (left without cultivation for one or less than one agricultural year),

(b) Other than current fallow- (left uncultivated for the past 1 to 5 agricultural years).


5. Net sown area-Area sown more than once in an agricultural year plus net sown area is known as gross cropped area.


Question-10

What are the factors that determine the use of land?

Solution:
The use of land is determined both by physical factors such as topography, climate, and soil types as well as human factors such as population density, technological capability and culture and traditions etc.

Question-11

What has significantly contributed to land degradation?

Solution:
Some human activities such as deforestation, over grazing, mining and quarrying too have contributed significantly in land egradation. Mining sites are abandoned after excavation work is complete leaving deep scars and traces of over-burdening. In states like Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh and Orissa deforestation due to mining have caused severe land degradation. In states like Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra overgrazing is one of the main reasons for land degradation. In the states of Punjab, Haryana,western Uttar Pradesh, over irrigation is responsible for land degradation due to water logging leading to increase in salinity and alkalinity in the soil. The mineral processing like grinding of limestone for cement industry and calcite and soapstone for ceramic industry generate huge quantity of dust in the atmosphere. It retards the process of infiltration of water into the soil after it settles down on the land. In recent years, industrial effluents as waste have become a major source of land and water pollution in many parts of the country.

Question-12

How can the problem of deforestation be solved?

Solution:
There are many ways to solve the problems of land degradation. 1.Afforestation and proper management of grazing can help to some extent.

2.Planting of shelter belts of plants, control on over grazing, stabilization of sand dunes by growing thorny bushes

3. In industrial and suburban areas, proper management of waste lands, control of mining activities, proper discharge and disposal of industrial effluents and wastes after treatment.


Question-13

Soil is the most important renewable natural resource. Explain.

Solution:
It is the medium of plant growth and supports different types of living organisms on the earth. The soil is a living system. It takes

millions of years to form soil upto a few cm in depth. Relief, parent rock or bed rock, climate, vegetation and other forms of life and time are important factors in the formation of soil.

Various forces of nature such as change in temperature, actions of running water, wind and glaciers, activities of decomposers etc. contribute to the formation of soil. Chemical and organic changes, which take place in the soil, are equally important. Soil also consists of organic (humus) and inorganic materials.


Question-14

Give a brief note on the productivity of alluvial soil.

Solution:
Alluvial soils as a whole are very fertile. Mostly these soils contain adequate proportion of potash, phosphoric acid and lime which are ideal for the growth of sugarcane, paddy, wheat and other cereal and pulse crops. Due to its high fertility, regions of alluvial soils are intensively cultivated and densely populated. Soils in the drier areas are more alkaline and can be productive after proper treatment and irrigation.

Question-15

Is black soil easy to work, in hot climate? Explain.

Solution:
The black soils are made up of extremely fine i.e. clayey material. They are well known for their capacity to hold moisture. In addition, they are rich in soil nutrients, such as calcium carbonate, magnesium, potash and lime. These soils are generally poor in phosphoric contents. They develop deep cracks during hot weather, which helps in the proper aeration of the soil. These soils are sticky when wet and difficult to work on unless tilled immediately after the first shower or during the pre-monsoon period.

Question-16

Give a brief note on arid soil.

Solution:
Arid soils range from red to brown in colour. They are generally sandy in texture and saline in nature. In some areas the salt content is very high and common salt is obtained by evaporating the water. Due to the dry climate, high temperature, evaporation is faster and the soil lacks humus and moisture. The lower horizons of the soil are occupied by Kankar because of the increasing calcium content downwards. The Kankar layer formations in the bottom horizons restrict the infiltration of water. After proper irrigation these soils become cultivable as has been in the case of western Rajasthan.

Question-17

Mention any two methods for reducing fallow land.

Solution:
The two methods for reducing fallow Land are :
1. Use fertilizers
2. Crop rotation or multiple cropping.

Question-18

What are the two disturbing features of land - use pattern?

Solution:
The two distributing features of land-use pattern are:
1.Forests
2.Barren & wastelands.

Question-19

Give two characteristics of alluvial soil.

Solution:
Two main characteristics of alluvial soil are:
1. Alluvial soil is the most widespread soil in India.
2. It is made by deposits brought down by the rivers year after year and are very fertile,
They are very suitable for cultivation.

Question-20

What was the root cause for resources depletion at the global level, according to Gandhiji ?

Solution:
(i) Greedy and selfish nature of the individual.
(ii) Exploitation nature of modern technology.

Question-21

What are the problems faced due to mismanagement of resources?

Solution:
(i) Over utilization of resources leads to their depletion.
(ii) Over utilization of the resources leads to environment degradation.

Question-22

What is conservation of resources?

Solution:
It is defined as the management of the resources by humans. It aims at satisfying the needs of the present generations as well as the aspirations of the future generations.

Question-23

What is resource planning?

Solution:
It is a widely accepted strategy for the judicious use of resources, eg Dalhousie has vast forest resources but lacks in infrastructural facilities. Hence planning is required in developing the resources.

Question-24

Give the importance of human beings as an essential component of resource?

Solution:
Man transforms material available in our environment into resources & uses them. Thus Man is considered as an important component of the Resource. eg. Wood is a material & when it is utilized it become a piece of furniture, which is a resource.

Question-25

Define Resource.

Solution:
Everything available in our environment, which can be used to satisfy our needs, provided it is technologically accessible, economically flexible and culturally acceptable, can be termed as resource.

Question-26

Where is black soil found ?
(A) Jammu and Kashmir
(B) Rajasthan
(C) Gujarat
(D) Jharkhand

Solution:
(C) Gujarat.

Question-27

Where is gully erosion is commonly found? 
(A) Kutch basin
(B) Saurasthra basin
(C) Chambal basin
(D) Southern Plateau

Solution:
(C) Chambal basin.

Question-28

In which of the following states, is the net sown area under irrigation lowest?
(a) Haryana, Punjab

(b) Bengal, Bihar, Assam
(C) Himachal, Assam, Maharashtra, Karnataka
(D) Jammu and Kashmir, Rajasthan, Gujarat

Solution:
(C) Himachal, Assam, Maharashtra, Karnataka.

Question-29

Where is laterite soil found?
(A) Jammu and Kashmir
(B) Rajasthan
(C) Kerala
(D) Jharkhand

Solution:
(B) Rajasthan.

Question-30

Where is land is degraded caused due to excessive cultivation?
(A) Madhya Pradesh
(B) Rajasthan
(C) Punjab
(D) Gujarat

Solution:
(C) Punjab.

Question-31

Which is not a factor, in process of transformation of resources in the given environment?
(A) Technology
(B) Institutions
(C) Wild life
(D) Human Society

Solution:
(C) Wild life.

Question-32

(A) Assam, Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh and Himachal Pradesh
(B) Jharkhand, Chattisgarh, Bihar
(C) Goa, Karnataka, Kerala
(D) Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Orissa

 

Solution:
(A) Assam, Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh and Himachal Pradesh.

Question-33

Choose the correct percentage of land division in India.
(A) Plains - 28%, Mountains - 16%, Plateaus - 60%
(B) Plains - 40%, Mountains - 33%, Plateaus - 27%
(C) Plains - 43%, Mountains - 30%, Plateaus - 27%
(D) Plains - 45%, Mountains - 28%, Plateaus - 27%

Solution:
(C) Plains - 43%, Mountains - 30%, Plateaus - 27%.

Question-34

Which one is a renewable resource ?
(A) Iron-ore
(B) Petroleum products
(C) Coal
(D) Solar energy

Solution:
(D) Solar energy.

Question-35

Which place is related to the Earth Summit of 1992?
(A) Dhaka in Bangladesh
(B) New Delhi in India
(C) Tehran in Iran
(D) Rio de Janeiro in Brazil

Solution:
(D) Rio de Janeiro in Brazil.

Question-36

Which one is an example of private ownership of a resource?
(A) Community Hall
(B) Police Station
(C) Farm Land
(D) Post Office

Solution:
(C) Farm land.

Question-37

What is India’s national territorial water limit extension?
(A) 10 nautical mile
(B) 12 nautical mile
(C) 11 nautical mile
(D) 15nautical mile

Solution:
(B) 12 nautical mile.

Question-38

Which is example for potential resource?
(A) Thermal energy in Jharkhand
(B) Hydel power in Himalayan region
(C) Electricity in Northern Grid of India
(D) Nuclear energy in Maharashtra region

Solution:
(B) Hydel power in Himalayan region.

Question-39

(C) Maharashtra, Karnataka, Kerala
(D) Bihar, Bengal, Assam

 

Solution:
(B) Haryana, Punjab, Bihar .

Question-40

In which place is land degradation excess due to land mining?
(A) Punjab
(B) Haryana
(C) Uttar Pradesh
(D) Jharkhand

Solution:
(D) Jharkhand.

Question-41

Which factor cannot be classified, as one of the factors of soil formation?
(A) Parent rock
(B) Running water
(C) Humus
(D) Industrialisation

Solution:
(D) Industrialisation.

Question-42

Which type of resources is iron-ore?
(A) Renewable
(B) Flow
(C) Biotic
(D) Non-renewable

Solution:
(D) Non-renewable.

Question-43

What caused land degradation in Punjab?
(A) Intensive cultivation
(B) Over irrigation
(C) Deforestation
(D) Overgrazing

Solution:
(A) Intensive cultivation.

Question-44

Where is terrace cultivation practiced?
(A) Punjab
(B) Haryana
(C) Plains of Uttar Pradesh
(D) Uttaranchal

Solution:
(D) Uttaranchal.

Question-45

Where is Sukhomaijri located ?
(A) Uttaranchal
(B) Uttar Pradesh
(C) Haryana
(D) Andhra Pradesh

Solution:
(C) Haryana.

Question-46

Where has shelter belts stabilised sand dunes?
(A) Gujarat
(B) Haryana
(C) Rajasthan
(D) Punjab

Solution:
(C) Rajasthan.


Question-47

India has a wide variety of relief features, which are the most important resources. Justify the statement.

Solution:
India has a wide variety of relief features which includes mountains plains & plateaus.

(i) plain land area is about 43% of the land area which provide facilities for agriculture & industry.

(ii) Mountains account for 30% of the land area which provides facilities for tourism & ecological aspects .It also ensures perennial flow of some rivers.

(iii) About 27% of the plateau region is considered as a storehouse for minerals.

Question-48

Give the differences between resource rich countries and resource poor countries.

Solution:

Resource Rich Countries

Resources Poor Countries

1.Resource rich countries are basically those which are rich in natural resources such as forest, water etc.

1.Resource poor countries are those, which have a poor resource base.

2.Eg:India has rich resource base but due to lack of technology most of it is potential

2.Eg. Japan with no resource base but they are rich in technological skills & talents.

 

Question-49

What are the various stages of resources planning?

Solution:
(i) Identification and inventory of resources across the regions of the country which involves surveying mapping & measurement of resources.

(ii) Evolving a planning structure with appropriate technology skills and institutions to set for implementing the resources development plans.

(iii) Matching the resources development plans with the overall nation development plans.

Question-50

What are the uses of resource planning ?

Solution:
(i) It reduces resource exploitation.

(ii) It keeps the environment pollution free.

(iii) Resources are limited, and thus it is required to conserve them for the future use.

(iv) It is essential for rapid economic development.

Question-51

What is sustainable economic development?

Solution:
Sustainable economic development means development should take place without damaging the environment & development in the present, should not compromise with the needs of the future generation.

Question-52

List the importance of natural resources.

Solution:
(i) They are the main source of our agricultural activities.

(ii) They provide the raw material for the industries.

(iii) All our commercial activities directly or indirectly depend upon them.

(iv) They are useful in maintaining the ecological balance.

Question-53

Give the resources on the basis of exhaustibility.

Solution:
The classification of resources on the basis of exhaustibility is:

(i) Renewable Resources - The resources that can be renewed or reproduced by physical, chemical & mechanical processes.

(ii) Non - Renewable Resources - They occur over a very long geological time taking millions of years in their formation & get exhausted with their use. For eg. minerals.

Question-54

Classify resources on the basis of origin.

Solution:
On the basis of origin resources are classified as:

(i) Biotic - They are obtained form Biosphere and have life such as flora & fauna.

(ii) Abiotic - All those things which are composed of non-living things such as rocks metals etc.

Question-55

What is the inter-relationship between nature, technology & institutions?

Solution:
Human beings interact with nature to fullfill his needs using the resources that are available. He also by transforms the natural stuff in to resources through technology & also create institutions to accelerate their economic development.

Question-56

What are the methods adopted to solve the problems of land degradation ?

Solution:
1. Afforestation.

2. Proper management & grazing land.

3. Planting of shelter belts in desert areas.

4. Control of overgrazing.

5. Stabilization of sand dunes by growing theory bushes.

6. Proper management of waste lands.

7. Control on mining activities.

8. Proper discharge & disposal of effluents & waster after treatment can reduce land degradation.

Question-57

Give a few activities which results in land - degradation.

Solution:
1. Deforestation in states like M.P. & Orissa.

2. Overgrazing in the states of Punjab & Haryana have cause land-degradation.

3. Mining & quarrying have contributed a lot in land degradation as mining sites are abundant after excavation work is complete leaving deep scars.

4. Over irrigation in areas such as Punjab & Haryana also leads to land degradation due to water logging leading to increase in salinity & alkalinity in soil.

5. Mineral processing like grinding of lime stone for cement industry generates huge quantity of dust in atmosphere after this dust settles down on land which stops percolation of water in soil.

6. Industrial effluents as wastes are a major source of land & water pollution.


Question-58

List the resources on the basic of the status of development.

Solution:
The classification of resources on the basis of status of development is as follows:

(i) Potential Resources - Resources that are found in the region but have not been utilized. For eg: Western part of India has enormous potential for solar and wind energy which have not been properly utilized.


(ii) Developed Resources - Resources which are surveyed & their quantity is determined for utilization, its development depends on technology & level of their feasibility.


(iii) Stock Resources - Material in the environment which has the potential to satisfy human needs but due to lack of technology human are not able to utilize them. Eg - water is a compound of hydrogen & oxygen they are the rich source of energy but due to lack of technology, we cannot use them.


(iv) Reserves - They are the subset of stock which can be put into use with the help of existing technological skills but their use has to not been started.


Question-59

Classify resources on the basis of ownership.

Solution:
Classification is as follows :

(i) Individual Resource - The resources that are owned privately by individuals such as a house is owned by an individual.


(ii) Community Owned Resources - The resources that are accessible to all the member of the society, eg. Public park.


(iii) National Resource - All the resources that belong to a nation such as forests, wildlife.


(iv) International Resource - There are international institutions which regulate some resources. For eg - the oceanic resources beyond 200kms. of exclusive economic zone belongs to open ocean & no individual country can utilize these without the interference of international institutions.


Question-60

How are gullies formed?

Solution:
Gullies are ravines formed by rain water in areas devoid of green cover.

Question-61

What does resource planning stand for?

Solution:
Resource planning is the technique used for ensuring best use of the existing resources.

Question-62

Identify three factors responsible for soil formation.

Solution:
Relief, climate and nature of parent rock are responsible for soil formation.

Question-63

What is meant by waste land?

Solution:
Waste land includes rocky, arid and desert areas.

Question-64

Write about resource planning. What were Gandhiji’s views on resource conservation?

Solution:
Resource planning is a complex process, which involves:

(i) Identification and inventory of resources across the regions of the country. This involves surveying, mapping and qualitative and quantitative estimation and measurement of the resources.


(ii) Evolving a planning structure endowed with appropriate technology, skill and institutional set up for implementing resource development plans.


(iii) Matching the resource development plans with overall national development plans.

Gandhiji voiced his concern about resource conservation in the following words: "There is enough for everybody’s need and not for any body’s greed." He placed the greedy and selfish individuals and exploitative nature of modern technology as the root cause for resource depletion at the global level. He was against mass production and wanted to replace it with the production by the masses.


Question-65

What has significantly contributed to land degradation?

Solution:
Some human activities such as deforestation, over grazing, mining and quarrying too have contributed significantly in land egradation. Mining sites are abandoned after excavation work is complete leaving deep scars and traces of over-burdening. In states like Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh and Orissa deforestation due to mining have caused severe land degradation. In states like Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra overgrazing is one of the main reasons for land degradation. In the states of Punjab, Haryana,western Uttar Pradesh, over irrigation is responsible for land degradation due to water logging leading to increase in salinity and alkalinity in the soil. The mineral processing like grinding of limestone for cement industry and calcite and soapstone for ceramic industry generate huge quantity of dust in the atmosphere. It retards the process of infiltration of water into the soil after it settles down on the land. In recent years, industrial effluents as waste have become a major source of land and water pollution in many parts of the country.

Question-66

Soil is the most important renewable natural resource. Explain.

Solution:
It is the medium of plant growth and supports different types of living organisms on the earth. The soil is a living system. It takes millions of years to form soil upto a few cm in depth. Relief, parent rock or bed rock, climate, vegetation and other forms of life and time are important factors in the formation of soil.

Various forces of nature such as change in temperature, actions of running water, wind and glaciers, activities of decomposers etc. contribute to the formation of soil. Chemical and organic changes, which take place in the soil, are equally important. Soil also consists of organic (humus) and inorganic materials.


Question-67

Is black soil easy to work, in hot climate? Explain.

Solution:
The black soils are made up of extremely fine i.e. clayey material. They are well known for their capacity to hold moisture. In addition, they are rich in soil nutrients, such as calcium carbonate, magnesium, potash and lime. These soils are generally poor in phosphoric contents. They develop deep cracks during hot weather, which helps in the proper aeration of the soil. These soils are sticky when wet and difficult to work on unless tilled immediately after the first shower or during the pre-monsoon period.

Question-68

Give a brief note on arid soil.

Solution:
Arid soils range from red to brown in colour. They are generally sandy in texture and saline in nature. In some areas the salt content is very high and common salt is obtained by evaporating the water. Due to the dry climate, high temperature, evaporation is faster and the soil lacks humus and moisture. The lower horizons of the soil are occupied by Kankar because of the increasing calcium content downwards. The Kankar layer formations in the bottom horizons restrict the infiltration of water. After proper irrigation these soils become cultivable as has been in the case of western Rajasthan.




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