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Name three states having black soil and the crop which is mainly grown in it.

The three states having black soil are Maharashtra,, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh. The crop which is mainly grown here is cotton.


What type of soil is found in the river deltas of the eastern coast? Give three main features of this type of soil.

Alluvial soil is found in the eastern coastal plains particularly in the deltas of the Mahanadi, the Godavari,the Krishna and the Kaveri rivers on the eastern coast.

1. The alluvial soil consists of various proportions of sand, silt and clay. As we move inlands towards the river valleys, soil particles appear somewhat bigger in size.

2. According to their age alluvial soils can be classified as old alluvial (Bangar) and new alluvial (Khadar).

3. Alluvial soils as a whole are very fertile. Mostly these soils contain adequate proportion of potash, phosphoric acid and lime, which are ideal for the growth of sugarcane, paddy, wheat and other cereal and pulse crops.


What steps can be taken to control soil erosion in the hilly areas?

The following steps can be taken to control soil erosion in the hilly areas:

a) Ploughing along the contour lines can decelerate the flow of water down the slopes. This is called contour ploughing.

b) Steps can be cut out on the slopes making terraces. Terrace Cultivation restricts erosion.

c) Large fields can be divided into strips. Strips of grass are left to grow between the crops. This breaks up the force of the wind. This method is known as strip cropping.

d) Planting lines of trees to create shelter also works in a similar way. These shelterbelts have contributed significantly to the stabilisation of sand dunes and in stabilising the desert in western India.


What are the biotic and abiotic resources? Give some examples.

Abiotic Resources
All those things, which are composed of non-living things, are called abiotic resources. For example, rocks and metals.

Biotic Resources
These are obtained from biosphere and have life such as human beings, flora and fauna, fisheries, livestock etc.


Explain land use pattern in India and why has the land under forest not increased much since 1960-61?

The use of land is determined both by physical factors such as topography, climate, soil types as well as human factors such as population density, technological capability and culture and traditions etc.

Total geographical area of India is 3.28 million sq km. Land use data, however, is available only for 93 per cent of the total area because the land use reporting for most of the north-east states except Assam has not been done fully. Moreover, some areas of Jammu and Kashmir occupied by Pakistan and China have also not been surveyed.

The land under permanent pasture has also decreased. How are we able to feed our huge cattle population on this pastureland and what are the consequences of it? Most of the, other than the current fallow lands are either poor quality or the cost of cultivation of such land is very high. Hence, these lands are cultivated once or twice in about two to three years and if these are included in the net sown area then the percentage of NSA in India comes to about 54 per cent of the total reporting area. The pattern of net sown area varies greatly from one state to another. It is over 80 per cent the total area in Punjab and Haryana and less than 10 per cent in Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Manipur and Andaman Nicobar Islands.

Forest area in the country is far lower than the desired 33 per cent of geographical area, as it was outlined in the National Forest Policy1952). It was considered essential for maintenance of the ecological balance. The livelihood of millions of people who live on the fringes of these forests depends upon it. A part of the land is termed as wasteland and land put to other non-agricultural uses.

Wasteland includes rocky, arid and desert areas and land put to other non-agricultural uses includes settlements, roads, railways, industry etc. Continuous use of land over a long period of time without taking appropriate measures to conserve and manage it has resulted in land degradation. This, in turn, has serious repercussions on society and the environment.


How have technical and economic development led to more consumption of resources?

Economic development is determined both by the availability of natural resources and also by the level of skilled manpower. Along with this technology available for converting the natural resources into high value products is essential. Man has been able to move from caves to high-rise buildings and into an industrial society with the help of skills and technology. Countries of Asia and Africa remained under developed even though they had vast natural resources. On the other hand European countries, even without enough natural resources due to technological progress reached a high level of economic development

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