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Question-1

How do Cloth Merchants function?

Solution:
A Cloth Merchant who sells cloth or clothes first invests money and buys wool from a wool stapler. He then takes the wool to the craftsmen in the villages and asks them to spin it into yarn. The yarn is given to the weavers, who are also in the villages. From the weavers it moves on to the fullers and then the dyers. The final finishing of the cloth or garment is done in the towns. The finished product is then sold in the International market, by the Merchants.

Question-2

What were the benefits enjoyed by the villagers in the proto- industrial system.

Solution:
As common agricultural land was disappearing, the villagers and poor peasants, who had earlier depended on common lands for their survival, had to look for alternative sources of income. The Merchants provided them with this alternative source of income.

By working for the merchants, the peasants could remain in the countryside and continue to cultivate their small plots. It allowed the villagers a complete use of their family labour resources, as all the members of the family could work for these merchants.


Question-3

Write a brief note on the cotton Industry

Solution:
New machinery was invented, in the cotton industry for carding, twisting and spinning, and rolling. These machines enhanced the output per worker, enabling each worker to produce more. Stronger threads were produced due to the modern machinery.

The Cotton mill was created by Richard Arkwright. Weaving of cloth which was done in the cottages by the villagers was now mass produced in these modern cotton mills. All the activities required for weaving cloth from raw cotton was now done under one roof- the cotton mill. This made supervision easier and production faster and quality finer. Soon factories became very popular.


Question-4

Discuss the plight of the Indian weavers with the advent of the East India company.

Solution:
The textile trade in India continued for some time even after the advent of the East India Company in the 1760s and 1770s.The scene changed when the East India Company established political power.


The East India Company asserted a monopoly right to trade. It developed a system of management and control that eliminated competition and controlled costs. The company through its authority was able to ensure regular supplies of cotton and silk goods.

The Company eliminated the existing traders and brokers in the cloth trade. It established direct control over the weavers. It appointed a paid servant called the gomastha to supervise weavers, collect supplies, and examine the quality of cloth. The Company prevented its weavers from dealing with other buyers by paying them advances.

The village weavers who used to cultivate their small pieces of land and weave during their leisure time now took to weaving as their full time job. All the members of the family were involved in weaving. Soon problems between the supervisors and the weavers set in. Outsiders were appointed as supervisors.


As the East India Company was the sole trader, the weavers had to be satisfied with whatever price the company gave, even if it was very low. Weavers along with the village traders revolted, opposing the Company and its officials.

Many weavers refused the loans offered by the Company, closed their workshops and went back to farming.

The 19th century brought more problems for the Indian weavers.


Question-5

Write a brief note on the East India company.

Solution:
The East India Company was also called "Company Bahadur" in India. It was granted an English Royal Charter by Elizabeth I on December 31, 1600, with the intention of favouring trade privileges in India. The Royal Charter effectively gave the East India Company a 21 year monopoly on all trade in the East Indies. The Company transformed from a commercial trading venture to one that virtually ruled India as it acquired auxiliary governmental and military functions, until its dissolution in 1858 following the the Indian Rebellion of 1857.

Question-6

Write a brief note on the Spinning Jenny.

Solution:
The spinning jenny is a multi-spool spinning wheel. It was invented in 1764 by James Hargreaves, in the north west of England. The device dramatically reduced the amount of work needed to produce yarn, with a single worker being able to work eight or more spools at a time. The spinning jenny was so effective in increasing the efforts of a worker's labor that Karl Marx cited it as the cause behind the elimination of slavery.

Question-7

What were the problems faced by the textile manufacturers in India in the late 1800s ?

Solution:
Exports declined and import of textiles increased. The Indian textile manufactures could neither sell their goods outside India nor could they sell their goods inside India.

Import of English textiles into India increased from 31 % to 50 %. As imported machine –made textiles was cheaper, the Indian weavers could not compete with it.

Raw cotton from India was exported to feed the Cotton mills of England and the Indian textile industry was without enough raw materials. Soon mechanised textile mill were also set up in India and the hand -weavers were virtually without any work.


Question-8

What was the Swadeshi movement?

Solution:
The Swadeshi movement was part of the Indian independence movement It was a successful economic strategy to remove the British Empire from power and improve economic conditions in India through the principles of self-sufficiency.

Strategies of the swadeshi movement involved boycotting British products and the revival of domestic-made products and production techniques. Swadeshi, as a strategy, was a key focus of Mahatma Gandhi, the father of the Indian Nation. He described the ‘swadeshi movement’ as the soul of self rule or independence.


Question-9

How do Cloth Merchants function?

Solution:
A Cloth Merchant who sells cloth or clothes first invests money and buys wool from a wool stapler. He then takes the wool to the craftsmen in the villages and asks them to spin it into yarn. The yarn is given to the weavers, who are also in the villages. From the weavers it moves on to the fullers and then the dyers. The final finishing of the cloth or garment is done in the towns. The finished product is then sold in the International market, by the Merchants.

Question-10

What were the benefits enjoyed by the villagers in the proto- industrial system?

Solution:
As common agricultural land was disappearing, the villagers and poor peasants, who had earlier depended on common lands for their survival, had to look for alternative sources of income. The Merchants provided them with this alternative source of income.

By working for the merchants, the peasants could remain in the countryside and continue to cultivate their small plots. It allowed the villagers a complete use of their family labour resources, as all the members of the family could work for these merchants.


Question-11

Write a brief note on the cotton Industry.

Solution:
New machinery was invented, in the cotton industry for carding, twisting and spinning, and rolling. These machines enhanced the output per worker, enabling each worker to produce more. Stronger threads were produced due to the modern machinery.

The Cotton mill was created by Richard Arkwright. Weaving of cloth which was done in the cottages by the villagers was now mass produced in these modern cotton mills. All the activities required for weaving cloth from raw cotton was now done under one roof- the cotton mill. This made supervision easier and production faster and quality finer. Soon factories became very popular.


Question-12

What were the problems faced by the textile manufacturers in India in the late 1800s ?

Solution:
Exports declined and import of textiles increased. The Indian textile manufactures could neither sell their goods outside India nor could they sell their goods inside India.

Import of English textiles into India increased from 31 % to 50 %. As imported machine –made textiles was cheaper, the Indian weavers could not compete with it.

Raw cotton from India was exported to feed the Cotton mills of England and the Indian textile industry was without enough raw materials. Soon mechanised textile mill were also set up in India and the hand -weavers were virtually without any work.





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