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  • Industrialization began in the late 18th and early 19th centuries with major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, and transportation.
  • Before factories came into existence a different kind of Industrialisation took place. This was called proto-industrialisation.
  • The earliest factories in England came up during the 1730s and grew in number during the late eighteenth century.
  • The most dynamic industries in Britain were cotton and metals.
  • Hand - labour was still very much in demand though industrialisation and machines had set in
  • In countries with labour shortage, industrialists were keen on using mechanical power so that the need for human labour can be minimised. This was the case in nineteenth-century America.
  • Life of the workers was affected as there was an excess of labour in the market.
  • The spinning jenny is a multi-spool spinning wheel invented in 1764 by James Hargreaves, in the north west of England.
  • India dominated the international market in textiles even before industrialisation set in.
  • The textile trade in India continued for some time even after the advent of the East India Company in the 1760s and 1770s.
  • Cotton industries developed in England and they did not want textiles to be imported from other countries like India.
  • Import duties were imposed on Indian textiles that entered England. This made imported goods costlier and soon imports declined. The textiles made in India did not have a market.
  • Dwarkanath Tagore and Jamsetjee Nusserwanjee Tata were the early entrepreneurs in India
  • During the early twentieth century the swadeshi movement gathered momentum during which Indians boycotted imported foreign cloth.
  • Handicrafts people adopted new technology and increased production without pushing up costs
  • Handicrafts people adopted new technology and increased production without pushing up costs. 

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