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Question-1

What were the three historical factors that shaped modern cities ?

Solution:
The three historical factors that shaped modern cities were….

• The rise of industrial capitalism

• The establishment of colonial rule over large parts of the world

• The development of democratic ideals.

Question-2


Solution:
The characteristics of a modern city are…

• Modern cites are often the centres of political power and administration.

• Trade and industries flourish here.

• Cities were filled with educational and religious institutions as they were thickly populated.

• Cities support various social groups such as artisans, merchants and priests.


Question-3


Solution:
Cities can be classified into big cities and small cities.

• The larger cities are called metropolises. They are the political and economic centre for a larger region. They are thickly populated.

• The smaller cities are not as thickly populated and their functions are not as important as the metropolises.


Question-4

What is the Brief History of London and how Industries flourished in London?
Solution:
In 1750, 1/10th of the British population lived in London. It was a massive city with a population of about 675,000. London continued to expand during the 19th century.Its population multiplied fourfold between 1810 and 1880, increasing from 1 million to about 4 million.

London was like a magnet for the migrant populations, even though it did not have large factories. The city was full of clerks and shopkeepers, of small masters and skilled and semi- skilled artisans, of soldiers and servants, of casual labourers, street sellers, and beggars.


The Industries that flourished in London were..

• The shipping dockyards. 

• The clothing and footwear Industry. 

• The wood and furniture Industry. 

• The metal and engineering Industry. 

• The printing and stationery Industry. 

• The surgical instruments and watch Industry.

During the First World War London began manufacturing motor cars and electrical goods, and these large factories employed nearly one-third of the labour force.

Question-5

Write a note on the chawls of Bombay.

Solution:
Chawls were multi-storeyed structures which were built in the ‘native’ parts of the town. These houses were owned by private landlords who rented these chawls to migrant workers. Each chawl was divided into smaller one-room tenements which had no private toilets. Many families could reside at a time in a tenement.

80 % of Bombay’s population resided in these chawls.

The chawls were not hygienic and as many people were living in a small area they faced a lot of problems. Water was scarce in these chawls. As the chawls were very small, streets and neighbourhoods were used for cooking, washing and sleeping.

Liquor shops and akharas came up in empty spaces. Streets were used for different types of leisure activities. Magicians, monkey players and acrobats used the streets to stage their shows.

People of the lower caste were not allowed into the chawls. The lower caste people were forced to live in temporary shelters made of corrugated sheets, leaves and bamboo poles.


Question-6

What are the challenges faced by big cities?

Solution:
Big cities face many problems, the main one being environmental problems.

City development causes great harm to the ecology and the surrounding environment. Natural features, like hills were flattened out to create more space in the cities. Due to the vast population, air, water and land get polluted.

Another major challenge faced by big cities all over the world was noise pollution. The heavy traffic and the blaring horns are the cause for this noise pollution.

Smoke from factories darkened the city skies and caused health hazards for the city dwellers.

Factory wastes contaminated the waterways and land.

The need for housing destroys the greenery and results in poor quality of air.

Governments all over the world are doing their best to control pollution and provide a save living space for the growing city dwellers.


Question-7

What were the steps taken to clean up London?

Solution:
Various steps were taken to clean up London. Attempts were made to spread out the tenements. Parks were created and trees were planted to reduce pollution.

Large blocks of apartments were built.

The city dwellers longed for the fresh country side. So a ‘green belt’ was created around London. Ebenezer Howard, an Architect, developed the principle of the Garden City, a city full of plants and trees, where people would both live and work. This would ensure a better quality of life for the city dwellers.


Ebenezer Howard called for the creation of new suburban towns of limited size, planned in advance, and surrounded by a permanent belt of agricultural land. These Garden cities were used as a role model for many suburbs. Howard believed that such Garden Cities were the perfect blend of city and nature. The towns would be largely independent, and managed and financed by the citizens who had an economic interest in them

The Government realising the need for good housing for the city dwellers built a million houses, most of them single-family cottages.


Question-8

Describe social life in London.

Solution:
Social life changed in London as industrialisation set in.

Ties between family members loosened and the institution of marriage broke down. Women of the upper and middle classes in Britain had an easier life as they could employ domestic maids to do the entire house –work, but they were isolated.

Women who worked for wages were more in control of their lives. Social reformers were worried about the declining family system and wanted to reconstruct it.

The city life created a new spirit of individualism among the men and women. They wanted freedom from their rural social values. Women were at a disadvantage compared to the men. Women lost their industrial jobs and they were ridiculed in pubic places by the conservative people. It became an unwritten law that public places were for the men and the home was for the women. It was only in the late 1800s that women were allowed to enter the political arena and were granted some rights.

By the twentieth century, the urban family was a small unit and became the focal point for goods and services.


New industries in the city provided mass work, and soon the working people needed mass leisure on Sundays and other common holidays.

As the need for recreation increased among the working class, cultural events, such as the opera, the theatre and classical music performances increased. Working classes also met in pubs to have a drink, exchange news. Many new types of large-scale entertainment for the common people came into existence.

In the nineteenth century Libraries, art galleries and museums were built. Music halls and cinemas became popular among the lower classes. British industrial workers spent their holidays by the sea.


Question-9

Write a note on the chawls of Bombay.

Solution:
Chawls were multi-storeyed structures which were built in the ‘native’ parts of the town. These houses were owned by private landlords who rented these chawls to migrant workers. Each chawl was divided into smaller one-room tenements which had no private toilets. Many families could reside at a time in a tenement.

80 % of Bombay’s population resided in these chawls.


Question-10

Write a note on London.

Solution:
In 1750, 1/10th of the British population lived in London. It was a massive city with a population of about 675,000. London continued to expand during the 19th century.Its population multiplied fourfold between 1810 and 1880, increasing from 1 million to about 4 million.

London was like a magnet for the migrant populations, even though it did not have large factories. The city was full of clerks and shopkeepers, of small masters and skilled and semi- skilled artisans, of soldiers and servants, of casual labourers, street sellers, and beggars.


Question-11

What are the challenges faced by big cities?

Solution:
Big cities face many problems, the main one being environmental problems.

City development causes great harm to the ecology and the surrounding environment. Natural features, like hills were flattened out to create more space in the cities. Due to the vast population, air, water and land get polluted.

Another major challenge faced by big cities all over the world was noise pollution. The heavy traffic and the blaring horns are the cause for this noise pollution.

Smoke from factories darkened the city skies and caused health hazards for the city dwellers.

Factory wastes contaminated the waterways and land.

The need for housing destroys the greenery and results in poor quality of air.





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