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  • Urbanization is the shift of human population from rural areas to cities, and the resulting growth of cities or urban areas.
  • Cities that first appeared along river valleys were larger in scale than other human Settlements, for example – Mohenjodaro.
  • Even after the Industrial Revolution Western countries were largely rural but slowly Industrialisation brought about urbanisation.
  • The fast –growing metropolis faced major problems like, crime, unemployment and poor housing
  • London became the world's largest city from about 1831 to 1925.
  • Ties between family members loosened and the institution of marriage broke down after industrialization in London.
  • As the need for recreation increased among the working class, cultural events, such as the opera, the theatre and classical music performances increased
  • In India, only very few cities developed during this period and about 11% of the Indian population only inhabited the cities.
  • Bombay was the premier city of India. It expanded rapidly from the late nineteenth century
  • Housing was a major problem in Bombay and the administrators had a difficult time providing shelter for the huge population.
  • City development caused great harm to the ecology and the environment and natural features, like hills were flattened out to create more space in the cities.
  • Governments all over the world are doing their best to control pollution and provide a save living space for the growing city dwellers. 

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