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  • A tissue is a group of cells which has its own common origin and performs a common function.
  • Cells of procambium appear as small patches in the developing stem or root and retain the capacity for cell division.
  • Fibres are common in stems, sclereids are common in shells of nuts and are found as gritty masses in pears etc.
  • Phloem consists of four types of cells:
    1. sieve tubes,
    2. companion cell
    3. phloem parenchyma and
    4. phloem fibres.
  • Xylem tissues give strength and conduct water, dissolve mineral salts, and sometimes foods upward through stems.
  • Stomata are minute pores present in the epidermis of land plants. Each stoma is protected by kidney shaped cells called the guard cells.
  • Vascular bundles are arranged like a ring.
  • The palisade layer of the leaf consists of one or more rows of tall cylindrical cells, with narrow air spaces between them.
  • Wood is the major product of the metabolism of trees and because of its many unique properties it is a very essential and useful material for the human being.
  • In a transverse section of a stem, these two types of wood appear in the form of distinct concentric circles known as growth rings.

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