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  • The various phases of the growth and reproduction of cell is called a cell cycle.
  • DNA synthesis occurs in the S-phase of the cell cycle(S for 'synthesis').
  • The process of somatic cell division called mitosis is divided into 4 phases namely prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase.
  • The spindle apparatus becomes distinct as soon as the nuclear membrane and nucleolus disappear during metaphase.
  • The division of cytoplasm is called as cytokinesis and the division of nucleus is called as karyokinesis.
  • Since the function of meiosis is the production of gametes, it is restricted to gamete producing organs of an organism such as testes and ovaries in animals, and anthers and ovules in higher plants (angiosperms).
  • Meiosis I is unique in having an extended prophase which is generally subdivided into five distinct stages, namely
    1. Leptonema,
    2. Zygonema,
    3. Pachynema,
    4. Diplonema and
    5. Diakinesis
  • Pairing of chromosomes takes place during zygonema stage of Meiosis I.
  • Chiasmata represent the points where there is the possibility of exchange of chromosomal material between chromatids of homologous chromosomes. 
  • Meiosis results in variation among living organisms, thus it forms the basis of evolution.

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