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sp2 Hybridization


In sp2 (pronounced as 's-p two') hybridization, one s orbital and two p orbitals belonging to the valence shell of an atom mix together to give three equivalent degenerate sp2 hybrid orbitals. These are oriented at an angle of 120° with respect to each other in the same plane. Each sp2 orbital includes 33.33 per cent contribution from each of the s and the two p orbitals.


  The Schematic Formation of sp2 Hybrid Orbitals

Example 1  
Boron Trichloride

Hybridization Scheme
Electronic configuration of 5B: 1s22s22p1
Electronic configuration of 17Cl: 1s22s22p63s23px23py23pz1
The molecule of BCl3 is a planar with bond angles 120° indicating that B in BCl3 is sp2 hybridized. The electronic configuration of B in the free state and the one existing in the BCl3 molecule are as follows.

Bonding
Each B—Cl bond is formed by the overlapping of sp2(B) and 3pz(Cl) orbitals.


Schematic Representation of the Molecule of BCl3

Example 2  
Ethene

Hybridization Scheme
Lewis structure of ethene
The molecule of ethene is planar with bond angles 120° indicating the carbon atom in ethene are sp2 hybridized. The electronic configuration of free carbon atom and the one existing in ethene are as follows:

Bonding
Of the three sp2 orbitals of one carbon atom, two are involved in the σ bonding with hydrogen atoms and one is involved in the σ bonding with the similar orbital of another carbon atom. In addition to this, one π bonding between two carbon atoms exists due to the sideways overlapping of the two p orbitals.



 Bonding in Ethene        





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