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Acid Rain

Oxides of nitrogen, nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide combine with oxygen and ozone to form higher oxides of nitrogen. These oxides ultimately dissolve in water to form nitric acid.

  1. NO + O3 NO2 + O2
  2. 2NO2 + 2NO2 2N O3 + O3
  3. NO2 + NO3 N2O5
  4. N2O5 + H2O 2HNO3
Sulphur dioxide reacts with oxygen and water to form sulphuric acid as shown below


The nitric and sulphuric acids dissolve in rainwater and come down to earth as acid rain. This is more in industrial areas. Acid rains have been reported in some places, which are far away from the places where industries are located and also in places where there are no industries. This is due to the movement of the rain clouds from industrial areas to other areas due to the flow of wind. The pH of the acid rain was 5 during 1918 and become 4.2 by 1962. Acid rain was reported at Delhi, Calcutta, Surat, Mumbai and Hyderabad in India.

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