The nitrogen containing substances, ions, water and carbon dioxide that accumulate in the body have to be eliminated.
Ammonia, urea and uric acid are the major nitrogenous wastes excreted.
The human excretory system consists of a pair of kidneys, a pair of ureters, a urinary bladder and a urethra.
Each kidney has over a million tubular structures called nephrons.
It has two portions glomerulus and renal tubule. Glomerulus is a tuft of capillaries formed from different arterioles. The Bowman's capsule encloses the glomerulus to form Malphigian or renal corpuscle.
Mechanism of nephron takes place through filtration, reabsorption and secretion.
Glomerulus filters about 1500 ml of blood per minute to form 125ml of filtrate in Bowman's capsule.
JGA specialized portion of the nephron, plays a significant role in the regulation of GFR.
Proximal convoluted tubule is the major site of reabsorption and selective secretion.
Distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct allow extensive reabsorption of water and electrolytes that helps in osmoregulation.
Urine is stored in urinary bladder till a voluntary signal from central nervous system carries out its release through urethra.
Apart from kidneys, other excretory organs are skin, liver and lungs.
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