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Dislocation and Fracture

The violent and careless movements like a jump, fall or knock often result in an injury to the skeleton. The injury, usually, may be of two types: 
  1. dislocation, and
  2. fracture.
  1. Dislocation - In an injury due to dislocation the bones at the joint are dislodged from their position. For example, the ball of one bone may slip out out of the socket, tearing the ligaments apart.
  2. Fracture - A fracture is a break of the bone. Depending on the extent to which the bone is injured, fractures are classified as follows:
    1. Green Stick Fracture - In this type of fracture the injury to the bone is in the form of a crack, with the broken parts still holding together.
    2. Simple Fracture - Sometimes a fracture breaks the bone into two fully separated parts. The broken parts of the bone are not displaced much from their positions. The broken ends lies close to each other. Such type of fractures are called simple fractures.



Different Types of Fractures
(A) Simple Fracture
(B) Compound Fracture

  1. Evulsion Fracture
    When a part of the bone has been broken off from the main body of the bone and remains still attached of the ligament, such a fracture is called evulsion fracture.
  2. Comminuted Fracture
    In this type of fracture the bone is broken into more than two fragments with some of the fragments probably losing connection with blood circulation.
  3. Compound Fracture
    In this type of fracture a fragment of the broken bone protrudes out through a breach in the skin.

Male and Female Skeletons

There are a number of features which distinguish male and female human skeletons. The bones of the male are generally larger and heavier than those of the female. The articular ends are thicker in relation to the shafts. In addition, since certain muscles of the male are larger than those of the female, the points of attachment are larger in the male skeleton. There are a number of structural differences between the male and female skeletons in the pelvis. Most of these structural differences are related to pregnancy and childbirth. Some of the main differences are

  1. Muscle attachments are well marked in the male and rather indistinct in the female, 
  2. Greater pelvis is deep in the male and shallow in the female, 
  3. Pelvic outlet is comparatively small in the male and larger in the female, 
  4. The pelvic inlet is heart shaped in the male, and larger and oval in the female, 
  5. Sacrum is long and narrow with a smooth concavity in the male, whereas it is short, wide, flat and curving forward in the lower part, in the female, 
  6. Acetabulum of the pelvic girdle is larger in males and smaller in females, 
  7. Obturator foramen is round in the male and oval in the female, 
  8. Greater sciatic notch is narrow in the male, wide in the female.

Disorders of Bones

  1. Rheumatism
    This refers to any painful state of the supporting structures of the body, its bones, ligaments, joints tendons or muscles. Arthritis is a form of rheumatism in which the joints become inflamed.
  2. Arthritis
    The term arthritis refers to at least twenty -five different diseases, the most common of which are rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and gouty arthritis. All these ailments are characterised by inflammation in one or more joints. Recent evidence suggests that the chronic pain that accompanies various arthritis conditions may be related to the patient's inability to produce endorphins. These chemicals are naturally produced pain-killers.

    The causes of arthritis are unknown. In some cases it follows the stress of sprains, infections and joint injury. Some consider the causative factor as bacterium or virus and some other think that it is a form of allergy.

    The primary symptom of rheumatoid arthritis is inflammation of the synovial membrane. In gouty arthritis, sodium urate crystals are deposited in the soft tissues of the joints. The crystals irritate the cartilage, causing inflammation, swelling and acute pain. Eventually the crystals destroy all the joint tissues.
  3. Muscular Hypertrophy
    The adult muscle fibre, if damaged cannot be replaced through cell division of the surviving muscle tissue.  However, the surviving cells can increase their size by synthesizing myofibrils with in each cell. The increase in the size of individual muscle fibres is known as muscular hypertrophy.
  4. Muscular Atrophy
    Any damage to the motor nerves supplying the muscle, results in paralysis of the muscle. The damage may be to the nerve cell or axon. The denervated muscle decreases in size and undergoes what is known as denervation atrophy. A muscle can also undergo atrophy due to constant disuse as in the case of a broken arm or leg immobilised in a plaster cast. This kind of atrophy is known as disuse atrophy.
  5. Muscular Dystrophy
    Any diseased condition of the muscle wherein either the nerve supplying a muscle or the muscle itself is affected is called muscular dystrophy. This may be due to genetical causes or due to virus infection. Dr. Salk of the USA has developed the polio vaccine to treat the children suffering from polio.
  6. Osteoporosis
    It is an age-dependent systemic disorder characterized by low bone mass, microarchitectural deterioration of the bone, increased fragility and proneness or susceptibility to fracture. The elderly men and women are most susceptible. It may occur in a pregnant woman. In individuals under prolonged treatment of cortisone, the skeleton fails to withstand the stress of the body and bones are easily fractured. Imbalances of hormones like thyrocalcitonin, parathormone and sex-hormones, deficiencies of calcium and vitamin D, are the major causative factors.

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