# Question-1

**What is the difference between (+) and (-)?**

**Solution:**

Magnitude is same, but direction is opposite.

# Question-2

**Define equal vectors.**

**Solution:**

Two vectors are said to be equal vectors if they have equal magnitudes and same direction.

# Question-3

**What do you mean by null vector?**

**Solution:**

A vector whose magnitude is zero and has no sense of direction is called null vector.

# Question-4

**When is the sum of two vectors maximum and when is it minimum?**

**Solution:**

When both are in the same direction, the sum of the vectors is a maximum and when in opposite directions the sum of the two vectors is minimum.

# Question-5

**Under what conditions will the directions of sum and difference of two vectors be same?**

**Solution:**

The directions of sum and difference of two vectors will be the same when they are unequal in magnitude and are in the same direction.

# Question-6

**(f) Adding a component of a vector to the same vector.**

**Solution:**

(a) Addition of any two scalars is not a meaningful algebraic operation because they can be added only when their nature is same, e.g., speed cannot be added to velocity.

(b) Addition of a scalar to a vector is not allowed even though they have the same dimension because a vector is a directed quantity while a scalar has no direction e.g., speed cannot be added to velocity.

(c) Multiplication of any vector by a scalar is a meaningful algebraic operation =mv^{2 }i.e., mass (scalar) multiplied by velocity (vector) gives rise to momentum.

(d) Yes, when power P is multiplied by time t, we get

work done= Pt, which is a useful operation.

(e) No, because the two vectors of same dimensions cannot be added.

(f) Yes, because both are vectors of the same dimension.

# Question-7

**Does the nature of a vector change when it is multiplied by a scalar?**

**Solution:**

The nature of a vector may or may not be changed when it is multiplied by a scalar. For example, when a vector is multiplied by a pure number (like 1,2,3,4,â€¦.etc) then the nature of the vector does not change. On the other hand, when a vector is multiplied by a scalar physical quantity, then the nature of the vector changes. For example, when an acceleration (vector) is multiplied by a mass (scalar) of a body, it gives a force (vector quantity) whose nature is different from acceleration.

# Question-8

**Does a vector have a location in space in addition to the magnitude and direction? Can two equal vectors and at different locations in space necessarily have an identical physical effect?**

**Solution:**

Yes, each vector has a location in space in addition to magnitude and direction. Two equal vectors and having different locations may not have the same physical effect.

# Question-9

**A vector has both magnitude and direction. Does that mean-anything that has magnitude and direction is necessarily a vector? The rotation of a body can be specified by the direction of the axis of rotation, and the angle of rotation about the axis. Does that make any rotation of a vector?**

**Solution:**

Generally rotation is not considered a vector, though it has magnitude and direction. The reason is that addition of two finite rotations does not obey commutative law. Since, addition of vectors should obey commutative law, a finite rotation cannot be regarded as a vector. However, infinitely small rotations obey commutative law for addition and hence an infinitely small rotation is a vector.

# Question-10

**Do + and - lie in the same plane? Explain.****Solution:**

Yes, +

**is represented by the diagonal of the parallelogram drawn with and as adjacent sides. The diagonal passes through the common tail of and . However, -**

**is represented by the diagonal of the same parallelogram not passing through the common tail of and.**

# Question-11

**Can three vectors lying in a plane add up to give a null vector? If yes, state the necessary conditions?**

**Solution:**

Yes, it is possible. The necessary conditions is that the resultant of two vectors must have a magnitude equal to the magnitude of the third vector but opposite in direction.

# Question-12

**What is the angle between two vectors if the ratio of their dot product and cross product is**

**âˆš**

**3?**

**Solution:**

or tan = or Î¸ = 30Â°

# Question-13

**When the component of a vector A along the direction of B is zero, what can you conclude about the two vectors ?**

**Solution:**

We have to consider two vectors A and B such that the angle between them is Î¸.

# Question-14

**What are the conditions for two vectors to be (i) parallel and (ii) perpendicular to each other?**

**Solution:**

(i) We know that, A Ã— B =

If two vectors are parallel, i.e. Î¸ = 0, then = 0

i.e., if two vectors are parallel, the product must be zero.

(ii) Also = A B cos Î¸

If two vectors are perpendicular, i.e. Î¸ = 90Â° ,

then = 0 i.e. if two vectors are perpendicular their dot product must be zero.

# Question-15

**What is the effect on the magnitude of the resultant of two vectors when the angle between the two vectors is increased from 0**

**Â° to Ï€**

**?**

**Solution:**

If and be the two given vectors, then the magnitude of their resultant is given by

R =

when Î¸ is increased from 0 to Ï€ , cos Î¸ goes on decreasing. Therefore, the magnitude of the resultant will also go on decreasing.

# Question-16

**Which of the following quantities are independent of the choice of orientation of the coordinate axes , 3Ax + 2B**

_{y}, ||, angle between and and**Î» , where Î»**

**is a scalar quantity.**

**Solution:**

In a vector, its magnitude and angle two vectors do not depend upon the choice of orientation of the coordinate axes. Therefore, , 3Ax + 2B

_{y}, ||, angle between and and Î» are independent or orientation of 'coordinate axes. Because the quantity 3A

_{x }+ 2B

_{y}depends upon the magnitude of components x and y-axis, it will change with change of coordinate axes.

# Question-17

**Can the components of a vector have magnitude greater than the vector itself? Can a rectangular component do so? Explain.**

**Solution:**

Yes, component of a vector cannot have magnitude greater than that of vector itself. The same is true in the case of rectangular component also. The rectangular components of a vector are: A

_{x}= A cos Î¸ and A

_{y}= A sin Î¸ . As maximum values of both sin Î¸ and cos Î¸ are equal to one, hence ||or || cannot be greater than ||.