This method is widely used for the purification of liquids from nonvolatile impurities. In can also be used to separate liquids, if their boiling points are quite different (about 40 K) from each other.
In distillation, the impure liquid is heated in a flask .
The more volatile component having a lower boiling point begins boiling sooner than the compound having a higher boiling point. These vapours can be collected, condensed and the liquid separated.
Distillation under Reduced Pressure or Vacuum Distillation
Many organic compounds decompose on heating even before they begin to boil. Such liquids cannot be purified by simple distillation.
The pressure inside the flask is reduced with the help of a vacuum pump.
Thus, the liquid boils at much below its normal boiling point and distills over without undergoing decomposition.
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