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Tetra valency of Carbon-Influence of Hybridization on Chemical Properties

Carbon is always tetra valent in its organic compounds, whether it undergoes sp, sp2 or sp3 hybridisation in Alkynes, Alkenes and Alkanes respectively.

Hybridisation influences the bond length and bond enthalpy (strength) in organic compounds. It is important to note that the SP hybridized bonds which have 50% S-character, are closer to nucleus and hence stronger than sp3 or sp2 bonds.

Also Sp hybridized carbon atom, having hybrid orbitals with 50% S-character is more electronegative than Sp2 and SP3 hybridised carbon atom.

Some characteristic of π - bonds and σ - bonds
n π -bond between adjacent carbon atoms, the p-orbitals are parallel mutually and perpendicular to the plane of the molecule. Therefore π -bond is having restricted rotation of as a result of which carbon - carbon double(C = C) exhibits geometrical isomerism. Ex. CHCl = CHCl exists in Cis form (the cl - atoms are on the same side while in trans form ( the Cl-atoms are on opposite sides)

Further the electron charge cloud of π - bond is placed above and below the plane of bonding atoms, as a result the electrons are easily available to attacking reagents.

Where as σ - bond is free to rotate. The free rotation of molecule around σ -bond in alkanes give different interconverting forms of molecule, known as conformations.

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