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Law of Conservation of Masses

Based on the study of chemical reactions, the following laws have been established:

Law of Conservation of Mass
Lavoisier established this law, in 1774. It states that in a chemical reaction, the mass of reactants (species before reaction) is equal to the mass of products (species after reaction). In other words, the mass is conserved in a chemical reaction. It leads to the fact that the matter in chemical reaction is neither created nor destroyed. There occur only rearrangements of matter.

Experimental verification of the law of conservation of mass:
This law can be verified by the study of any chemical reaction. In the laboratory, it can easily be verified by the study of the following reaction:
AgNO3 + NaCl AgCl + NaNO3

When a solution of silver nitrate (AgNO3) is treated with a solution of sodium chloride a white precipitate of silver chloride (AgCl)is obtained along with a solution of sodium nitrate (NaNO3). If the law is true, the total mass of AgNO3 and NaCl should be the same as the total mass of AgCl precipitate and NaNO3 solution. The experiment is done in a specially designed H shaped tube called Landolt's tube.
Sodium chloride solution is taken in one limb of the tube while silver nitrate solution is taken in the other limb as shown in the figure. Both the limbs are now sealed and tube is weighed. Now the tube is inverted so that the solutions can mix up together and react chemically. The reaction takes place as mentioned above and a precipitate of silver chloride is obtained. The tube is again weighed. The mass of the tube is found to be exactly the same as the mass obtained before inverting the tube. This experiment clearly shows that the law of conservation of mass is true.

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