Shape of Orbitals
Concept of Orbitals
A large number of orbitals are possible in an atom. An orbital of smaller size means there is more chance of finding the electron near the nucleus. Similarly the shape and orientation mean that there is more probability of finding the electron along certain directions than along others.
Shape of Orbitals
The symbols s, p, d and f find their origin from the words sharp, principal, diffuse and fundamental, respectively, which have been used to identify the spectral lines in the atomic spectra of different atoms.
Shape of 1s Orbital
ψ^{2}_{n,0,0 }α R^{2}_{n,0}
The plots of R_{1,0 } versus r and R^{2}_{1,0} versus r are shown.
The plots (a) R_{1,0 }Versus r and (b) R^{2}_{1,0} versus r.
Here a_{o }Represents the Bohr Radius (52.9 pm)
The dot  Population Picutre (or the Electroncloud Density Pattern) for 1s Orbital 
Shape of 1s Orbital 
Shape of 2s Orbital
As stated above, for 2s orbital we will have
^{ψ }_{,0,0 }∝_{ }R_{,0}
The plots of R_{2,0} versus r and R_{0}, versus r are shown.
For a given value of r, the function R may have positive, zero or negative value. Thus, the plot of R also often includes the sign of the value of R . The probability plots are always positive as the square of a positive or negative quantity is always positive.
It can be seen from the above that for 2s orbital, there are two maxima in the R_{0} versus r plot, one at r = 0 and the other at about r = 210 pm. In between these two maxima, probability becomes zero at about r = 105 pm. This point is known as nodal point. The dotpopulation picture of 2s orbital is shown in Figure 1.15 whereas 90 % probability contour diagram (or shape of 2s orbital) is shown in Figure 1.16. The size of 2s orbital will be larger than that of 1s orbital as the most of charges in 2s orbital reside farther away from the nucleus as compared to 1s orbital.
Ploof R_{2},o Versus r and R_{,0}Versus r. Here a_{o} Represents Bohr Radius ( = 52.9 pm)


The dot  population Picture of 2s Orbital  Shape of 2s Orbital 