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All the living organisms, even the smallest of bacteria, reproduce. However, the amazing diversity of organisms on earth has resulted because most organisms reproduce sexually. Some, like earthworms are hermaphrodites. Most others have separate sexes, male and female, like marijuana plants, fish, birds, cattle and humans. Some organisms reproduce by asexual means also like in the case of fungi which multipliy and spread due to millions of asexual pores that they produce. Some plants use their roots for asexual reproduction.

Lower organisms like yeast and Hydra reproduce through budding. In many echinoderms the buds break away and take up an independent existence. In others, the buds remain attached to the parent and the process results in colonies of animals. Budding is also common among parasitic animals, e.g., tapeworms.


In brief, metabolism is the total sum of all chemical reactions in the body. All living beings are made of chemicals and each of these chemicals performs certain function in the body and the chemicals belong to certain class and size. There is a constant ongoing process of chemical activities in the body where these chemicals are constantly being made and changed into some other bio molecules. These conversions are termed as chemical reactions or metabolic reaction. There are millions of such chemical reactions occurring inside a living organism at one time. All living organisms, be it a plant or an animal, fungi or microbe, exhibit metabolism. No non living thing can exhibit this characteristic. Metabolic reactions can be exhibited outside the body in the cell free system. This isolated metabolic reaction can be performed in the test tube. We can say that metabolism includes taking in raw materials, building cell components, converting the available energy in the molecules and releasing the end product. The functioning of a cell depends upon its ability to extract and use chemical energy stored in organic molecules. This energy is derived from metabolic paths so metabolism is the most important characteristic of a living organism.

Cellular Organisation

The most important thing that makes a living organism different from non living is its ability to sense. Only the living organism has senses. Commonly speaking sense is a faculty by which outside stimuli, which can be physical chemical and biological, are perceived. We can sense our environment through our senses. Some of the common senses are sight, hearing, taste, smell and touch. Plants respond to external factors such as light, water, temperature, other organism's pollution, etc. Although they have limited ability to move, they grow up towards the sun, and some have leaves which are able to turn and follow the sun, allowing them to photosynthesize better. Their roots grow down to search for water and minerals. If a plant doesn't get enough sunlight, water or minerals it will die. All living things can sense and respond to the environment.

Property of Living Organism

When two constituent cells interact with each other they exhibit the properties of the tissues. Thus, we can say that the properties of the tissues do not exist in the constitutional cell, and similarly is the case with cellular organisms as they do not exist inside the molecular constituents but are the result of molecular constituent consisting of organelle interactions. Therefore at higher level of organization, we can see that these interactions lead to the rise of the above properties. This formula fits at all levels when organizations are ranked. Hence it can be said that living organizations have sensitivity towards the external stimuli. All living organisms are somehow linked to one another due to common genetic material and that too through varying degrees.

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