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Question-1

Why are living organisms classified?

Solution:
Classification is the process by which anything can be grouped to convenient categories based on some easily observable characters.

Question-2

Given below are two scientific names. Identify the correctly written name of mango.
Mangifera Indica
Mangifera indica

Solution:
Mangifera indica

Question-3

Define a taxon? Give some examples of taxa at different hierarchical levels?

Solution:
Taxon represents a unit of classification. Some examples are species, genus and order.

Question-4

Can you identify the correct sequence of taxonomical categories?
(a) Species
Order Phylum Kingdom
(b) Genus Species Order Kingdom
(c) Species Genus Order Phylum

Solution:
(c) Species Genus Order Phylum

Question-5

Define and understand the following terms:

(i) Phylum

(ii) Class

(iii) Family

(iv) Order

(v) Genus

Solution:
(i) Phylum
Phylum is a primary division of the animal kingdom. It is a series of animals or plants genetically connected.

(ii) Class
This category includes related orders.

(iii) Family
Family, has a group of related genera with still less number of similarities as compared to genus and species. Families are characterised on the basis of both vegetative and reproductive features of plant species.

(iv) Order
A group of families showing certain structural or morphological relationships.

(v) Genus
Genus comprises of a group of related species, which has more characters
in common in comparison to species of other genera.

Question-6

How is a key helpful in the identification and classification of an organism?

Solution:
Key is another taxonomical aid used for identification of plants and animals based on the similarities and dissimilarities. The keys are based on the contrasting characters generally in a pair called couplet. It represents the choice made between two opposite options. This results in acceptance of only one and rejection of the other. Each statement in the key is called a lead. Separate taxonomic keys are required for each taxonomic category such as family, genus and species for identification purposes. Keys are generally analytical in nature. Flora, manuals, monographs and catalogues are some other means of recording descriptions. They also help in correct identification. Flora contains the actual account of habitat and distribution of plants of a given area. These provide the index to the plant species found in a particular area. Manuals are useful in providing information for identification of names of species found in an area. Monographs contain information on any one taxon.

Question-7

Illustrate the taxonomical hierarchy with suitable examples of a plant and an animal.

Solution:
Classification is not a single step process but involves hierarchy of steps in which each step represents a rank or category. Since the category is a part of overall taxonomic arrangement, it is called the taxonomic category and all categories together constitute the taxonomic hierarchy. Each category, referred to as a unit of classification, in fact, represents a rank and is commonly termed as taxon (pl.: taxa). Taxonomic categories and hierarchy can be illustrated by an example. Insects represent a group of organisms sharing common features like three pairs of jointed legs. It means insects are recognizable concrete objects which can be classified, and thus were given a rank or category. Category further denotes rank. Each rank or taxon, in fact, represents a unit of classification. These taxonomic groups/ categories are distinct biological entities and not merely morphological aggregates. Taxonomical studies of all known organisms have led to the development of common categories such as kingdom, phylum or division (for plants), class, order, family, genus and species. All organisms, including those in the plant and animal kingdoms have species as the lowest category. Now the question you may ask is, how to place an organism in various categories? The basic requirement is the knowledge of characters of an individual or group of organisms. This helps in identifying similarities and dissimilarities among the individuals of the same kind of organisms as well as of other kinds of organisms.




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